CCP 3.1.5.E - Enūma Anu Enlil 5 and 16 E

Catalogue information
Yale Babylonian Collection
NBC 7843
DivinationAstrological. Enūma Anu Enlil


Base text: 
Enūma Anu Enlil 5 and 16
Commentary no: 
Tablet information
Complete tablet (some sigs on the left
obv 26, rev 24
8,8 × 6,1 × 2,2 cm
Achaemenid (5th cent - 331 BCE) (Uruk, Anu-ikṣur / Nippur / Babylon)
Zēr-kitti-līšir s. Aplāya d. Gimil-Sîn

Frahm, 2011E. Frahm, Babylonian and Assyrian Text Commentaries. Origins of Interpretation. Ugarit-Verlag, 2011.
[with edition of colophon]
: 140-41, 235, 299, 303-04, 315

Gabbay & Jiménez, forthcomingU. Gabbay and Jiménez, E. , From Nippur to Uruk: The Tablets of the Gimil-Sîn Family.
[On the colophon]

Frazer, 11/2016 (Transliteration)
Frazer, 11/2016 (Translation)
Frazer, 11/2016 (Introduction)
Frahm & Jiménez, 11/2016 (Suggestions, revision)
By Mary Frazer | Make a correction or suggestion
How to cite
Frazer, M., 2016, “Commentary on Enūma Anu Enlil 5 and 16 (CCP 3.1.5.E),” Cuneiform Commentaries Project (E. Frahm, E. Jiménez, M. Frazer, and K. Wagensonner), 2013–2024; accessed May 18, 2024, at DOI: 10079/5hqbzz9
© Cuneiform Commentaries Project (Citation Guidelines)

This well-preserved portrait-oriented tablet, now in the Yale Babylonian Collection, contains a previously unpublished cola-type commentary on Tablets 5 and 16 of the celestial omen manual, Enūma Anu Enlil.

The text begins by quoting the entire protasis that is partially preserved in the opening line of a manuscript of EAE from Nineveh, edited as source a of Tablet 5 by Verderame.1 The same protasis is cited after a single ruling on the reverse (l. 32), thereby indicating that it is the incipit of Tablet 5 of EAE. Many of the explanations begin by designating the day of the month to which the base text refers. Since some of the protases are incompatible with the designated days (see the notes ad ll. 9 and 14), it is unclear what the commentator is trying to achieve by associating the protases with these specific days. In ll. 11-14, the commentator is clearly trying to render an unintelligible text intelligible by explaining several words not easily associated with the appearance of the moon, e.g. “downtrodden,” as meaning “eclipse.” The omen “If its horns are full of protuberances,” which is treated in l. 15, also appears in CCP 3.1.5.A (l. 14), where it is explained differently.

Lines 33-40 contain a short commentary on Tablet 16 of EAE. Some of the protases it comments on are the same as some of those commented on in CCP 3.1.16 (see the notes to ll. 36-39 of the present text), and the section concludes with the incipit of EAE 16, which is squeezed into the end of a line of commentary. A three-line colophon follows, in which the scribe is identified as “Zēr-kitti-<līšir>, nêšakku-priest of Enlil, son of Aplāya, nêšakku-priest of Enlil, [desce]ndant of Gimil-Sîn, the Sumerian.” He may be identical to the homonymous father of the scribe of CCP 4.2.M.a (a commentary on the therapeutic medical series Qutāru). After the colophon, the present text ends with a four-line prayer to Nabû, which has been published and discussed by Frahm.2

To date, eleven tablets containing text commentaries (including this one) can be identified with more or less certainty as written by and belonging to members of the Gimil-Sîn family, who, since they are often priests of Enlil, were based in Nippur. Although the tablets associated with the descendants of Gimil-Sîn were probably produced in that city, all five that were found during controlled excavations come from Uruk. Consequently, this particular tablet may have been found at Uruk, or even at Babylon or Sippar – cities where some of the six other tablets containing text commentaries written by members of the Gimil-Sîn family may have been found.3

This tablet’s colophon does not contain a date, and neither the scribe nor his father are attested in administrative documents. As a result, the date of the tablet’s production is uncertain. However, since three text commentary manuscripts produced by members of two other Nippurean families can be dated to the Persian period,4 this time span is the likeliest approximate date of this tablet and others belonging to members of the Gimil-Sîn family.


Powered by Oracc
(Base textCommentaryQuotations from other texts)


NBC 07843


[*] 30 ina IGI.-šú SA₅ SI ZAG-šú ke-pat SI GÙB*-šú ed-de-et : SI-ME-šú <ZAG> AN.TA1

[If] the moon, when it appears, is red and its right horn is curved (and) its left horn is pointed.” (If) its horns [are directed] <to the right> (and) upwards,


[IGI.] dṣal-bat-a-nu ina ZAG TE-šú-ma SI-MEŠ-šú ZAG šá iq-bu-ú SI-šú ina ŠÀ-šú GAR2

Mars approaches it on the right.” What it says “its horns are to the right (ZAG) (means) “its horns are placed in its center


[u? AN].GE₆ TIL : * SI 30 ka-pi-ip : U₄ 30-KAM it-ti dUTU in-nam-mar-ma3

and a complete [ecli]pse (will occur).” “If a horn of the moon is bent” refers to the thirtieth day (on which) “it (i.e., a horn) will be visible with the sun, and


[ka]-ap-pa-at : * U₄ 13-KAM KI 20 IGI-ma : GIM giš.GUR₈ ina IM BAD RU : * SI 304

curved.” “If, on the thirteenth day, they (i.e., the horns of the moon) are visible with the sun” means “like a makurru-boat, .... “If a horn of the moon


[ud]-du-da-at U₄ 1-KAM IGI-ma U₄ 14-KAM ina IGI dUTU iz-za-az-ma5

is pointed” (refers to) the first day it (on which) “it (i.e., the horn) will be visible” and the fourteenth day (on which) “it (i.e., the horn) will stand before the sun.”


[* x]-KA/SAG-mu GAZ U₄ 30-KAM dSAG.ME.GAR TE-šú-ma : * SI-MEŠ-šú id-di U₄ 1-KAM GAZ6

[If ...] ... (refers to) the thirtieth day (on which) “Jupiter will approach it (i.e., the moon).” “If it (i.e., the moon) lets (lit. let) its horns hang” (means) “on the first day, there will be a defeat.”


[*] BABBAR-ma SI-ME-šú id-di U₄ 1-KAM dSAG.ME.GAR TE-šú-ma7

[If it (i.e., the moon)] is white and lets (lit. let) its horns hang” (means) “on the first day, Jupiter will approach it (i.e., the moon).”


[*] SI-MEŠ-šú ANe ṭe-ri-a AN.GE₆ SA₅ : a-da-ri : DIRI8

[“If] its horns pierce (ṭerû) the sky” means (If) there is a red eclipse” (because) “to grow dark” means “DIRI.”


[*] SI-MEŠ-šú kùp-pu-pa U₄ 30-KAM U₄ 13-KAM : * SI-ME-šú kap-pa U₄ 1-KAM AGA ip-pir-ma9

[“If] its horns are very bent” (refers to) the thirtieth and thirteenth days. “If its horns are bent” (refers to) the first day (on which) “it (i.e., the moon) will wear a crown.”


[*] SI-MEŠ-šú tar-ṣa U₄ 1-KAM U₄ 14-KAM U₄ 30-KAM U₄ 12-KAM LAL : ta-ra-ṣa : LAL : ma-ṭu-ú10

[“If] its horns are stretched out” (refers to) the first, fourteenth, thirtieth and twelfth days. LAL means “to stretch out,” LAL means “to be small.”


[*] SI-MEŠ-šú kap-ṣa AN.GE₆ šá-niš NU IGI šá-pa-a : AN.GE₆ : sap-ḫa : AN.GE₆ kab-sa : AN.GE₆11

[“If] its horns are bent” means “an eclipse,” alternatively, “they (i.e, the horns) will not be visible.” “Dense” means “eclipse,” “scattered” means “eclipse,” “down-trodden” means “eclipse,”


nam-ra AN.GE₆ : ddil-bat TE-šú-ma : * SI-ME-šú ÚŠ ma-la-a : AN.GE₆ SA₅ : rap-šá : AN.GE₆12

“bright” (means) “eclipse” (or) “Venus will approach it.” “If its horns are full of blood” means “a red eclipse,” “wide” means “eclipse,”


pu-úḫ-ḫu-ra : AN.GE₆ : GIM MURUB₄-šú kab-ri : AN.GE₆ : SIG-MEŠ : un-nu-tu13

“to [g]ather” means “eclipse,” “it is thick like its middle” means “eclipse,” (because) “weak (pl) means “faint.”


[*] SI-ME-šú ke-pa-a U₄ 30-KAM : AN.GE₆ : a-dir : AN.GE₆14

[“If] its horns are curved” (refers to) the thirtieth day (and) means “eclipse.” “It grows dark” means “eclipse.”


[*] SI-ME-šú ṣer-ši SA₅-ME dUDU.IDIM NIGIN-šú TE-šú-ma15

[If] its horns are full of protuberances” (means) “a planet will circle it (i.e., the moon) and then approach it.”


[*] SI-ME-šú GÍD.DA-MEŠ U₄ 15-KAM MEŠ i-mad-di NÍGIN-ma16

[If] its horns are long” (refers to) “the fifteenth day.” MEŠ (means) “it is numerous” (or) “it is surrounded.”


* SI-ME-šú GIM šal-ma AN.GE₆ šá SILIMim ANe šak-nu17

“If its horns are like ... (means) “eclipse ... ‘peace of the sky’ ...


* SI-MEŠ-šú pu-us-su-la-ma la ú-ta-ad-da-a : AN.GE₆ TIL : na-pal-ku-ú

“If its horns are distorted and unrecognizable” means “complete eclipse.” “To be wide”


ra-pa-áš : AN.GE₆ : * SI-ME-šú ed-da-ma SA₅ U₄ 1-KAM i-kab-bir-ma : ZI : sa-a-mu18

(means) “to be broad,” (which) means “eclipse.” “If its horns are pointed and red” (refers to) the first day it (on which) “it (i.e., the Moon) will be thick” (because) ZI (means) “to be red”


ZI : ka-a-nu : * SI-ME-šú ke-pa-a u šal-pa U₄ 30-KAM <<x>> U₄ 15-KAM19

(and) ZI means “to be firm.” “If its horns are bent and sheathed” (refers to) the thirtieth day and the fifteenth day.


* SI-ME-šú ku-ri-a u la šal-pa U₄ 30-KAM U₄ 14-KAM : * SI-ME-šú ana ŠÀnu kap-ṣa20

means “If its horns are very short and unsheathed” (refers to) the thirtieth and fourteenth days. “If its horns are curved inwards”


U₄ 13.KAM : ana ki-da-nu tur-ra : U₄ 15.KAM : * SI-ME-šú ana ki--nu kun-nu-šá AN.GE₆21

(refers to) the thirteenth day. “They are turned outwards” (refers to) “the fifteenth day.” “If its horns are bent outwards” (means) “eclipse.”



“If its horns are both black” (refers to) the thirtieth day and the x day. “If its horns are both bright” (refers to) the first day,


U₄ 1.KAM U₄ 14.KAM : * SI-ME-šú ki-lat-tan mit-ḫa-ri U₄ 1.KAM U₄ 14.KAM : * GIM gišBAN AN.GE₆ : * SI SI i-ti-iq U₄ 1.KAM U₄ 15.KAM23

the x day, and the fourteenth day. “If both its horns are equal” refers to the first day and the fourteenth day. “If (the horns) are like a bow” (means) “eclipse.” “If one horn extends beyond the other” (refers to) the first and fifteenth days.


* SI? SI? i-dir : U₄ 1.KAM U₄ 14.KAM : * MUL BABBAR x x x x [x x x x]24

“If one horn wraps around another” refers to the first and fourteenth days. “If the white star …” [refers to “…]


u? d?dil-bat šá-niš MUL ma-du-tu₄ sa-ḫi-ir áš-šú dx-[(x)]

and Venus”; alternatively (it means) “it is surrounded by many stars” because of .


* [d30 ina IGI.-šú?] SI-MEŠ šu-ta-tu-tu dGU₄.UD u dṣal-bat-a-[nu (...)]

“If [, when it (i.e., the moon) appears, its meeting horns ... (means) “Mercury and Mar[s ().”]


* [ina d30 IGI.-šú? d?]30? ŠÚ MUL a-ṣi : ina na-an-mu-ru šá d30 MUL TE-šú [(x x)]

“If [, when it appears, the mo]on grows dark (and) a star rises” means “at the heliacal rising of the moon, a star will approach it [()].


[pal]-lu-ur-ti : MUL-MEŠ šá-niš dman-za-át e-bi-iḫ ṭe-ri?25

[“C]ross” means “stars”; alternatively (it means) “it is encircled by a rainbow (and) pierced”


[MUL]-MEŠ šá SI-MEŠ ki-lal-la-an dman-za-át ddil-bat

[“The star]s of both horns” (means) “the Rainbow Star (and) Venus,”


[šá-niš mulU₄].AL.TAR ina dUTU.È.A dŠUL.PA.È.A ina dUTU.ŠÚ.A

[alternatively (it means) “Ud]altar in the east, Šulpa’e’a in the west.”


[(šá) * 30] ina IGI.-šú SA₅ma SI ZAG-šú ke-pat SI 2.30-šú ed-de-et26

[(From) “If the moon], when it appears, is red, its right horn is bent, (and) its left horn is pointed.”



[“If an eclipse] occurs and stars surround (it) (means) (there is) an eclipse and planets move/stand, and when the eclipse occurs


[x x x] x DUNGU SUD-MEŠ ina d<UTU>.È.A u dUTU.ŠÚ.A DUNGU GÁLši-ma

[].” “Distant clouds” (means) “in the east and west, there is cloud.”


[...] E₁₁?-ma u ZÁLAG šá ul-tu <...> EN ZÁLAG IM la ib-baṭ-ṭal : ina IZI.AN.NE GUB

[ it ri]ses, and the daylight which from <> until daybreak, the wind will not cease” (or) “it stands in a fiery glow.”


[... di]-il-ḫu GÁL-ma : <ina> TÙR DUak u ZÁLAG AN.GE₆ <<ina>> TÙR NÍGIN-ma ina ŠÀ ZÁLAG28

[“…] there is [di]sruption.” “It goes (into) the “cattle-pen” and is bright” (means) “the eclipsed moon is surrounded by a “cattle-pen” and becomes bright in its midst.”


[i?-ri?-iḫ?]-ḫa : i-ra-aḫ-ḫi-iṣ : TÉŠ.BI i-rim-ma ana bir-ṣa GUR gab-bi-šú ir-rim-ma29

[“will be left over] means “will devastate.” “It will be completely covered and turns into a glow” (means) “it will be covered in its entirety.”


[* d30 a-dir qim-mat-su] ANe dal-ḫat : ma-di- -ta-an-na-aḫ-ma30

[“If the moon grows dark and its crown] disturbs the sky” means (the eclipse) will last a long time.”


[* d30 ina iti]BÁRA ina IGI.-šú a-dir ina EN.NUN.AN.USAN AN.GE₆ GAR-ma31

[“If the moon, in the month of] Nisannu, when it appears, is dark” (means) “in the first night watch, an eclipse will occur.”


[* d30 ina iti]BÁRA AN.GE₆ GAR ina EN.NUN.MURUB₄.BA GAR-ma šá AN.GE₆ GAR-ma U₄ ŠÚup32

[“In the month of] Nisannu an eclipse will occur” (means) “in the middle night watch it will occur.” From “An eclipse will occur and the day will be dark.”


[im?GÍD?].DA? mNUMUN-kit-ti-<GIŠ> NU.ÈŠ den-líl A šá mAa NU.ÈŠ dSI33

[Long table]t of Zēr-kitti-<līšir>, nêšakku-priest of Enlil, son of Aplāya, nêšakku-priest of Enlil,


[ŠÀ].BAL.BAL mgi-mil-dEN.ZUna šu-me-ru₆-ú

[desce]ndant of Gimil-Sîn, the Sumerian (i.e., “from Nippur”).


[x x] EGIR dnin-urta UR.SAG DINGIR-MEŠ AL.DU34

[...] goes behind Ninurta, the hero of the gods.


[x x] x-a-nu d ak-ku-ú :* dna-bi-um šá ṭup-šar-ru-tu₄

... Nabû, (read) akkû, means “Nabû of the scribal arts,”


[x x] x it-pe-šu ba-nu-ú ka-la-mu e-piš šip-ri be-lu nab-ni-tu₄

expert in [...], creator of everything, performer of skilled work, lord of creation,


[(x) e]-piš NÍG.KA₉ le-ʾu-ú mut-tab-bil ka-la-mu ra-ʾi-im kul-lat

skilled performer of accounting, servant of everything, who loves everything,


[mu-ma]-ʾe-er gi-mir šá a-na e-peš KA-šú DINGIR-ME šá ANe u KI -taq-ru

the one who commands the whole (world), whose command the gods of heaven and the netherworld honor.

1The sign following the second SI is not, pace Frahm (2011 p. 140 n. 691), an erroneous writing of 2,30, but rather GUB₃ (collation by E. Jiménez). The emendation of the second quotation and the restoration of the beginning of l. 2 follow parallels in source j (rev. 4-5, 8-9, 12-13) of EAE 5 (Verderame 2002: 145).

2The restoration of the words broken away at the start of the line is made on the basis of a parallel line in a manuscript of EAE 5: see the preceding note. Pace Frahm (2011 p. 140 n. 691), “Mars approaches it on the right” is part of the base text, not a commentarial explanation.

3The beginning of the line is restored on the basis of l. 18, in which the phrase AN.GE₆ TIL (“complete eclipse”) also appears. On both occasions it is unclear why the phrase is in the genitive case.

4The feminine gender of kappat indicates that the subject of the explanation is the horn not the moon. Although the moon’s horns are compared with a makurru-boat in the base text (source d l. 8’), the colon preceding GIM in the present line seems to indicate that the comparison belongs to a commentarial explanation rather than the base text. The signs following GIM giš.GUR₈ defy confident interpretation. One possibility is to read RU as the logographic writing of the verb nadû, ŠUB; another is to read BAD as the logographic writing of the verb gamāru, TIL, with RU as a phonetic complement. However, neither possibility solves the problem of how to interpret the preceding signs.

5An omen that begins “If (the moon, when it appears,) a horn of the moon is pointed” occurs in sources j (obverse 26’) and o (l. 6’) of EAE 5.

6As a logogram, the sign GAZ is attested in three apodoses in sources f (l. 28’) and i (ll. 35’ and 37’) of Tablet 5. In all three cases the apodosis is: “the king of GN will be killed by his servants in a revolt” (LUGAL xki ÌR-MEŠ-šú ina ḪI.GAR GAZ.MEŠ-šú). However, since this commentary usually comments on protases, and since the signs preceding GAZ in the commentary do not correspond with those preceding GAZ in the aforementioned apodoses, this entry probably does not refer to any of them. An omen featuring the phrase “If it lets its horns hang” – which is also the subject of the entry in l. 7 – is otherwise unattested in EAE 5.

7An omen featuring the phrase “it (i.e., the moon) lets its horns hang” – which is also the subject of the entry in l. 6 – is otherwise unattested in EAE 5. The explanation resembles that given for the first protasis cited in l. 6.

8Omens featuring the phrase “If its horns pierce the sky” are attested in sources f (ll. 1’ and 4’) and l (ll. 1 and 4) of EAE 5. A red eclipse is also attested in l. 12. The explanation seems to be based on (ancient) etymological connections: ṭerâ (“pierce”) is connected with adāru (“to grow dark”), by means of the sign DIRI, which is phonetically similar to ṭerâ and can be read as SA₅ (“red”). However, the commentary does not explicitly make the connection between ṭerâ and SA₅.

9The explanation of “If its horns are very bent” as referring to the thirteenth day of the month has little bearing in reality because by this point in its 29.5 day cycle the moon is nearly full. The same may also apply for the thirtieth day, the time of the new (i.e., no longer visible) moon. See l. 14 for a similarly unrealistic explanation of a protasis. The explanation “it will wear a crown,” with the durative form rather than the more usual stative form of apāru, is elsewhere attested in an unedited commentary on EAE 1-13, K.5967+ (ii 25) [= CCP 3.1.u93]. See Verderame (2002: 7 n. 43) for a transliteration of the line in question.

10Omens featuring the phrase “If its horns are stretched out” occur in sources f (l. 9’), l (l. 8), o (l. 12’), and v (l. 4) of EAE 5. LAL is also equated with both tarāṣu and maṭû in Syllabary A Vocabulary (source Q, ll. 26’ and 16’ = MSL 3 p. 70).

11The verbs kapāṣu and sapāhu are also treated in close proximity in CCP 3.1.5.D obverse, column i, 5’-6’ (Verderame 2002: 136).

12In the scholarly royal correspondence of the Neo-Assyrian period, the brightness of stars is often associated with the presence of Venus (Brown 2000: 92 n. 229).

13The translation of GIM MURUB₄-šú kab-ri is based on an earlier manuscript of EAE from Emar (Arnaud 1987: 254), in which kab-ri is written kab-ra (reference courtesy of E. Jiménez).

14The explanation of the protasis “If its horns are very bent” as referring to the thirtieth day seems astronomically impossible because the thirtieth day would have been the time of the new moon. See l. 9 for a similar problem.

15A similar omen is treated in CCP 3.1.5.A (l. 14), where one finds the different explanation: “in both of its horns two stars stand.” The reasoning behind both explanations is unclear.

16MEŠ is equated with mādu / mâdu in CCP 3.1.u7 (r iii 2 and 4). The MEŠ in question is presumably the plural determinative following GÍD.DA.

17The phrase salīm šamê, written DI ANe, is also attested in EAE 20 Text G obverse l. 8 (Rochberg 1988: 224), K 7029 l. 7’ (Rochberg 1988: 282), and SAA 8 103 l. 8. Collation of all three instances shows that the sign before ANe is DI not NE. The reading of the sign DI as SILIM rather than as ṭe follows the suggestion of E. Jiménez (personal communication).

18ed-da-ma kabāru. The equation ZI = sâmu is not otherwise attested, and the reason for the commentator using ZI to explain the base text is unclear.

19The equation ZI = kânu is also attested in the so-called “Esangil Commentary” (AfO 17 133: 34) and CCP 1.1.B.b, a commentary on Enūma eliš 7: 1, 21, and 40. (references from CAD K 160a). The stative of šalāpu appears to be otherwise unattested (CAD Š/1 230b-1). In addition, this appears to be its only attestation in reference to a celestial object.

20The reasoning behind the explanation given in the first part of this line is unclear. The protasis cited in the second part of the line is attested in source k (l. 5’) of EAE 5, albeit without the reference to the thirteenth day.

21It would be tempting to read the signs ana ki--nu, “outwards,” as ana KI.TAnu, “downwards,” were it not for the writing of the phrase as ana ki-da-nu kun-nu-[šá] in sources d (l. 2’) and i (col. ii l. 20) of EAE 5 (Verderame 2002: 131 and 142). The writing ana ki-da₂-nu is otherwise attested only is k (l. 6’).

22The two protases cited in this line are also attested in source d of EAE 5 (Verderame 2002: 131 ll. 3’-4’) where, instead of TÉŠ-MEŠ, one finds TÉŠ.BI, the usual logographic writing of mithāriš. The repetitions of U₄ 30.KAM in this line and of U₄ 1.KAM at the beginning of the next line are assumed to be scribal errors.

23The moon’s horns are said to be ki-lat-tan mit-ha-ra in source d (l. 5’) of EAE 5; they are compared to a bow in sources d and k (ll. 7’ and 9” respectively) of EAE 5; and the protasis “If one horn extends beyond the other” appears in source v 12.

24The protasis “If one horn wraps around another” appears in source v 14 of EAE 5 (Verderame 2002: 164). The “white star” appears in a commentary on EAE 1, VAT 7827 (column 2, l. 5).

25The word pallurtu, “cross,” is attested in source e (reverse, ll. 16’-18’) of EAE 5.

26The restoration of šá at the beginning of the line is based on the means of introducing the incipit of EAE 16 at the end of l. 40.

27The restoration is based on a parallel line in Text e (reverse 2) of EAE 20 (Rochberg 1988: 222)

28The restoration at the beginning of the line and the emendation of the base text is based on parallels in CCP 3.1.16 l. 15 (ina TÙR DUak u ZÁLAG) and l. 47 (dilhu ibašši).

29The beginning of the line is tentatively restored based on CCP 3.1.16 (ll. 31-32), but with the proviso that this would be the only time that an apodosis is explained in this commentary. The phrase TÉŠ.BI i-rim-ma ana bir-ṣa GUR is cited as part of the base text in CCP 3.1.16 (ll. 41-42), a commentary on EAE 16.

30The same protasis is cited in CCP 3.1.16 (l. 46), but with a different explanation from the one offered here.

31The same protasis is cited in CCP 3.1.16 (l. 50), but with a different explanation from the one offered here.

32The line concludes with the incipit of EAE 16, thereby confirming that this section is a commentary on that Tablet.

33Gabbay & Jiménez suggest that the phrase used to express filiation in this line, māru ša, may indicate that the tablet was written during or after the reign of Darius I (522-486), when māru ša became more common than māršu ša (Jursa 2005: 7 n. 35). However, they also suggest that the choice of phrase might be due to geographical rather than chronological factors.

34The work to which this quotation belongs is yet to be identified. Incipits of incantations as well as a quotation from Angim appear in other Gimil-Sîn colophons: see Gabbay & Jiménez (forthcoming: 25-37).

Photos by Mary Frazer

© Yale Babylonian Collection