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ina a-mat dEN u dGAŠAN-ía liš-lim
(0) By the word of Bēl and Bēltīya, may it be perfect.
ŠAḪ-MEŠ it-ta-na-da-ru : ša iš-[še-gu]-ú : na-ad-ri : še-gu-[ú (...)]
(1) “(If) pigs persistently rage” (= Šumma Ālu 49 1) (refers to pigs) that go w[il]d, (since) “raging” means “wil[d” (...)]
ṣa-a-du : la-mu-ú : * ŠAḪ-MEŠ ina SILA.DAGAL.LA il-ta-na-su-ú ZI⸢ut⸣ [IM]
(2) “To prowl” (= Šumma Ālu 49 2) means “to circle.” “If pigs persistently squeal in the city square — rise of [a storm] or uprising of spade and hod (laborers)” (= Šumma Ālu 49 4) (the relationship between protasis and apodosis is demonstrated by the expression) “to lie down like a pig,” (which appears in the line) “You, (O Stone,) while (they) work on you, lie like a pig!” (quotation from Lugale 484).
šum₄-ma ZIut gišMAR u GI.DUSU : ṣa-la-lu ki ŠAḪ : at-tú ana e-pe-ši-ka ⸢ki⸣-[i ŠAḪ lu-u] ⸢ṣal⸣-lat1
KUN-MEŠ-šú-nu ta-ru-ú : šá ana e-la-nu tur-ru : ta-ru-ú : na-šu-ú : ana IGI ⸢NA⸣ [in-niš-ru]
(4) “Their tails are turned back” (= Šumma Ālu 49 5) (refers to tails) that are turned back upward, (since) “to turn back” means “to raise.” “Will approach the man” (= Šumma Ālu 49 15-16), “to approach” means “to go”; alternatively, “to approach” means “to draw near.”
a-šá-ri : a-la-ku : šá-niš a-šá-ri : sa-na-qu : i-gar-ru-ru : ga-ra-ar : pa-⸢la⸣-[ḫu]2
(5) “(Pigs) are rolling” (= Šumma Ālu 49 17), “to roll” means “to fe[ar].”
gišTUKUL-MEŠ-šú-nu i-še-el-lu : šá šin-na-šú-nu i-mar-<ra>-qu : gu-ukKA.DÙ : kak*-ku* [ka?-na?-ku?] ⸢šin?⸣-ni3
(6) “(The pigs) are sharpening their weapons” (cf. Šumma Ālu 49 13) (refers to pigs) that grind their teeth, (since) KA.DÙ, pronounced /guk/, means “weapon,” “to seal,” and “tooth” (= citation from Diri Ug I 69-71 (?)), (since) ZÚ, pronounced /zu/, means “tooth,” and DÙ, pronounced /du/, means “to seal” (and) alternatively “to kiss.” ZÚ.SA.SA means “šelû, said of a marsh boar,” (in the word ZÚ.SA.SA), ZÚ means “tooth of a marsh boar” and SA means “to sharpen, said of weapons.”
ZÚzu : šin-ni : DÙdu : ka-na-ku* : MIN : na-šá-qu : ZÚ.SA.SA še-lu-ú šá ŠAḪ gišGI4
ZÚ! : šin-nu šá ŠAḪ a-pi : SA : še-e-lu šá kak-ku : ZI URU ZI KU₆-MEŠ u MUŠEN ina KUR GÁLši UN-MEŠ
(8) “There will be an uprising of a city, uprising of fish and birds in the land” (cf. Šumma Ālu 49 43′) means “the people will rise up together, it is favorable.”
ana ⸢iš?-te?⸣-en i-te-eb-bu-ú SIG₅ : GI.GÌRgi-ir : a-lit-tu₄ : Ú qa-né-e : GI.Ú.GÌR : ⸢a⸣-[da]-⸢at-tu₄⸣5
(9) GI.GÌR (cf. Šumma Ālu 49 53′-55′), (GÌR) read /gir/, means “fertile,” (it refers to) the “reed-plant”; GI.Ú.GÌR means adattu, i.e., the base of the reed.
SUḪUŠ šá GI : GI.TUR : zi-ri : šam-mu qa-né-e : šá-niš GI.TUR : ze-er-ze!-ri!? [(...)]6
(10) GI.TUR (= Šumma Ālu 49 unknown) means zīru-reed, i.e., “reed plant”; alternatively, GI.TUR means zirzirru-reed. [(...)]
GI.GILIM : ki-li-im-bi : ri-ik-su šá GI : Ú.A.GUG₄ : el-pe-tú : me-e-bur-[ki x x] ⸢x⸣
(11) GI.GILIM (= Šumma Ālu 49 47′ and 52′-55′) means “reed bundle,” (i.e.,) a bundle of reeds. Ú.A.GUG₄ (= Šumma Ālu 49 50′) means “alfalfa-grass,” (i.e.,) “alfa gr[ass” ...] ... (means) “alfalfa-grass.”
el-pe-tu₄ : * ŠAḪ gišPA GIŠIMMAR na-ši IM ZI : gišGIŠIMMAR lim-ḫur-an-ni ma-ḫi-ir kal šá-a-[ri]
(12) “If a pig carries a palm frond, wind will rise” (= Šumma Ālu 49 48′) (the relationship between protasis and apodosis is demonstrated by the line) “May the date palm receive it, (the tree) that receives every wind!” (quotation from Maqlû I 22).
SÍG la-ḫi-im MU₄mu-mu.MU₄ : la-ba-šú : MU₄mu-mu.MU₄ : la-ḫa-mu : SÍG.ÙZ ma-le-e [(x x x)]
(13) “(A pig) is covered (laḫim) with hair” (= Šumma Ālu 49 24) – MU₄.MU₄, (pronounced) /mu-mu/, means “to be clothed” (labāšu), MU₄.MU₄, pronounced /mu-mu/, means “to be covered” (laḫāmu), (it refers to) unkempt hair [(...)].
LUGAL ŠÚ : LUGAL ŠÚ : LUGAL a-ḫu-ú : ŠÚ : kiš-šá-tu₄ : ŠÚ : a-ḫu-ú : URU-MEŠ ár-bu-ta₅ DU!(KU-)⸢MEŠ*⸣ [x x] ⸢x GAR-x⸣ [(x x)]7
(14) LUGAL ŠÚ (= Šumma Ālu 49 24) means “king of the universe” (LUGAL ŠÚ), (alternatively, it means) “foreign king,” (since) ŠÚ means “universe” and ŠÚ means “foreigner.” “Cities will be laid waste” (= Šumma Ālu 49 24) means ... [...].
⸢ILLAT*⸣ NU ZU ana EN-šú TEam : lìb-bu-ú : ab-bu-ut ŠEŠ-MEŠ la šu-a-ti ip-pu-uš8
(15) “A support he did not know of will approach his owner” (= Šumma Ālu 49 28′) is as in “he will intercede for brothers that are not his” (= quotation from Iqqur īpuš §31 Elūlu). KI.ÙR (= Šumma Ālu 49 unknown) means “to pillage,” (since) KI means “place” and ÙR means “to pass by, in the sense ‘to cross’.”
KI.ÙR ⸢:⸣ ma-la-lu* : KI : áš-ri : ÙR : ba-ʾ-ú šá e-te-qu : * ŠAḪ ana IGI NA9
(16) “If a pig repeatedly opens its mouth in front of a man, the man’s wife will repeatedly have (illicit) sex” (= Šumma Ālu 49 34′) (the relationship between protasis and apodosis is demonstrated by the fact that) MÚRUB means “mouth,” MÚRUB means “anus,” and MÚRUB means “female genitalia.”
KA-šú ⸢BAD*.BAD*⸣te DAM LÚ it-ta-na-a-a-ak : MÚRUBmu-ru-ub pu-ú : MÚRUB : šu-uḫ-ḫu
⸢MÚRUB⸣ : ú-ri šá MUNUS : i-ʾi-ir : a-ri : a-lak : i-ši-ir : a-⸢šá⸣-[ru : a-la-ku]
(18) “(A pig) advances (iʾir)” (= Šumma Ālu 49 35′) stems from “to advance,” which means “to go,“ i.e., “he approaches,” (since) “to appr[oach” means “to go”].
ana IGI EN-šú ig-⸢gu⸣-[uš] : ig-gu-uš : il-lik : ip-làḫ-ma ig-gu-uš šá-da-a-šú i-li10
(19) “(A pig) leaves towards his owner” (cp. Šumma Ālu 49 38′), “leaves” means “goes,” (as in) “he was afraid and left and disappeared (lit. “went up to his mountain”)” (= quotation from Anzû?). ...
i-li ⸢x⸣ [x] ⸢x⸣-ad-me : im-ši-id : im-ḫa-aṣ šá-niš im-ši-id : is-pu-un11
(20) “He hit” (= Šumma Ālu 49 38′) means “he struck,” alternatively, “he struck” means “he flattened,” (since) ÙR means “to strike” and ÙR means “to flatten.”
⸢ÙR* :* ma*-šá*-du*⸣ : ÙR : sa-pa-nu : e-se-et-tu₄ ana É EN-šú KU₄ : qé-reb : a-sìr12
(21) “A captive woman will enter the house of his master” (= Šumma Ālu 49 41′), “center” (from the protasis, written qé-reb [i.e., KI.KAL]), means “center,” (and hence) “captive” (lit., “enclosed”); KI.KAL means “hardship.”
⸢KI.KAL :⸣ dan-na-tu₄ : nam-<<zi>>-mi-ru-tú né-ḫi-iš <<ru-tú>> i-te-né-ep-pu-uš13
(22) “It calmly performs the function of the herald (namgirūtu)” (= Šumma Ālu 49 42′) (refers to the pig) that sings calmly; alternatively, namgirūtu means nagirūtu (i.e., “function of the herald”). “A sick person [will die] in ad[versity]” (= Šumma Ālu 49 42′), TE means “to calm down,” TE means “to cool down.”
⸢šá* né*-ḫi*-iš*⸣ i-za-am-mu-ru : šá-niš nam-gi₆gi-ru-tú : na-gi-ru-tú : GIG ina aḫ-[ḫi?-ti? UG₇]
[TE] ⸢: na*-a⸣-ḫu : TE : ⸢pa*⸣-šá-ḫu : i-se-er : se-e-ri : sa-pa-nu : LÚ BI <<:>> ina URU ú-[ba-ru KU₄]14
(24) “It smears” (= Šumma Ālu 49 64′) (stems from) “to smear,” (which) means “to flatten.” “That man, the en[emy will enter] the city” (= Šumma Ālu 49 unknown, cf. 57′) means “a foreigner will enter his house” – “foreigner” means “enemy.” Alternatively, it means “he will turn into a stranger in his (own) city” [(...)].
[ú]-⸢ba*⸣-ri ana É-šú ir-ru-ub : ú-ba-ri : nak-ri : šá-niš ina URU-šú ana a-ḫi-i i-ta-ri [(x x x)]15
[*] ⸢ŠAḪ⸣ la šu-ú id-da-ri-ir-ma : ana É NA KU₄ : na-ad-ri : še-gu-ú : LÚ iš-li
(26) “[If a pi]g that is not his own goes on the rampage and enters a man’s house” (= Šumma Ālu 49 68′), “on the rampage” means “raging.” “(A pig) tears a man to pieces” (= Šumma Ālu 49 72′), “to tear to pieces” means “to shred.”
[šá-lu]-ú : ša-ra-ṭu : É ú-na-ap-pilpi-il : A it-bu-uk : áš-šú ši-na-a-⸢tú⸣
(27) In “turns the house upside down (ú-na-ap-NE)” (= Šumma Ālu 49 72′), (NE should be read as) /pil/. “(A pig) spills water” (= Šumma Ālu 49 75′) it refers to urine.
[ŠÈ]⸢ze⸣-e LÚ il-mu-um : la-ma-mu : a-ka-lu : NA mu-lem-mìn INIMa-mat TUKUši
(28) “(If a pig) chews human excrement” (= Šumma Ālu 49 77′), “to chew” means “to eat.” “The man will have a slanderer” (= Šumma Ālu 49 77′) means he will see ...
⸢x x IGImar?⸣ : NA uš-ta-ga-lit : lìb*-bu-ú <<:>> ṣal-tu₄ : INIMa-mat pi-qíqa TUKUši16
(29) “(If a pig) terrifies a man” (= Šumma Ālu 49 78′) (is) as in “a combat.” “He will have a word of constraint” (= Šumma Ālu 49 80′) means he will have a [...] word.
⸢x⸣ INIMa-mat TUKUši : * ŠAḪ ana É NA KU₄-ma ZI-ma KIMIN É BI Á.TUKU TUKUši
(30) “If a pig enters a man’s house, stands up and ditto (scil., “vomits,” ipru), that house will acquire profit” (= Šumma Ālu 49 81′) ... means ...
⸢x-bi :? ru?-tu₄?⸣ : ḫa-mi : ḫu-ṣa-bi : ḫa-mi Ú : ḫu-ṣa-bi : šá mim-ma la šu-a-tu₄17
(31) “Chaff” (= Šumma Ālu 49 82′) means “twig,” because the chaff of a plant is a twig. “Of what it is not his” (= Šumma Ālu 49 unknown) means “all he achieves.”
ma-la KURád : lu-ḫu-ma-a ip-šu-uš : lu-ḫu-ma-a pu-uš-šú šá u₄-mu-us-su pu-uš-šú
(32) “Smears with mud” (= Šumma Ālu 49 unknown) “smeared with mud” (refers to a pig) that is smeared daily, (new break) you smear. “Debi<lity>” (literally, luʾ-(break)) means “disease.”
ḫe-pí eš-šú ta-pa-áš-šá-šu! : lu-ʾ-ḫe-pí : mur-ṣu : * ana É NA MUNUS.ŠAḪ ḫi-i na-šat-ma KU₄18
(33) “If a sow carrying ḫiʾu enters a man’s house” (= Šumma Ālu 49 85′), (new break) either a saw or a pig; ḫiʾu means “reed fence (made of) adattu-reed,” (i.e.,) “ḫīlu of a reed,” (which) means (new break) “reed plant.”
ḫe-pí eš-šú MUNUS.ŠAḪ lu ŠAḪ : ḫi-i : GI.SIG a-da-at-tu : ḫi-lu šá qa-né-e19
ḫe-pí eš-šú šam-mu qa-né-e
ṣa-a-tú ù šu-ut KA šá * ŠAḪ-MEŠ it-ta-na-ad-da-ru * URU <ina> SUKUDe GARin
(36) Lemmata and oral explanations from (If) pigs persistently rage” (= Šumma Ālu 49), from “If a City is Set on a Height.”
⸢LIBIR?.RA?-šu?⸣ TA muḫ-ḫi imgì-ṭa SUMUN GABA.RI bar-sipki SAR-ma IGI.TAB20
(37) Copied and collated from an old one-column tablet, whose original was from Borsippa.
imgì-ṭa dAG-DIN-su-E A šá mdAMAR.UTU-MU-DÙ A mdegi-ba-ti-la ŠU-MIN mdAG-MU-SI.SÁ DUMU-šú
(38) One-column tablet of Nabû-balāssu-iqbi son of Marduk-zēru-ibni descendant of Egibatila. Handwriting of Nabû-šumu-līšir, his son.
1Quotation from Lugale 484. The explanation probably tries to demonstrate the internal consistency of the omen by proving that the protasis (“pigs”) is related to the apodosis (“uprising”) because “lying down” (the opposite of “uprising”) is often said of pigs.
2The emendation of the last signs as NIGIN, proposed inter alii by CAD G 47b, is epigraphically unlikely. The restoration adopted at the end follows SpTU 2 39 o 3 (CCP 4.1.34).
3Compare KA.dù = kanāku in Antagal C 106 (MSL 17 198) and ku-ku-kaKA.KAK = kakku, kanāku, šinnu in Diri Ugarit I 69-71 (MSL 15 69).
4The fourth word is ka-na-ku* (collated). The correct parsing of ZÚ.SA.SA escapes us, the last equation seems to be taken from an unknown lexical source.
5The restoration and interpretation at the end follows CAD A/1 110a, note that it would also be possible to reconstruct ⸢a⸣-[ba]-⸢at-tu₄⸣.
6The emendation of the one but last word in zi-ri-ru!, suggested in CAD Z 136b, is unlikely.
7On the various interpretations of LUGAL ŠÚ in commentaries, see Frahm GMTR 5 p. 63 fn. 297.
8The second part of the line contains a quotation, introduced by the technical term libbū, from Iqqur īpuš §31 Elūlu.
9The second word may also be ba-la-lu.
10The verse cited at the end of the line may represent a quotation from Anzû II 29 = 147, igrur irtaʾub šadûssu igguš, “(Ninurta) became afraid, trembled, and disappeared (lit., “he left to his mountain”).” The different wording of the line in the present commentary may be due to the fact that the commentator was citing from memory.
11It does not seem possible to read at the beginning of the line bīn šar dadmē, i.e., the incipit of Anzû (see note on the preceding line).
12The base text reads a-si-ir-tu₄, “captive woman,” instead of e-si-ir-tu₄. The present commentarial entry links the word qereb, “center,” in the protasis (which reads [DIŠ ŠAḪ ana] qé-reb ur-ši KU₄, “if a pig enters the center of a bedroom”) with the mention of a “captive woman” in the apodosis.
13⸢KI.KAL⸣ at the beginning of the line refers still to qé-reb (note that both are written with the same signs). The sign after NAM is a clear ZI (the word **namzirūtu is thus probably related to zamāru, “to sing,” in the commentator’s mind), but one might consider an emendation nam-gigi₆-ru-tú.
14The reading of the first half of the line follows CAD P 229a. The equation of nâḫu and pašāḫu seems to be intended to demonstrate the relationship between the protasis of the omen (which contains the word nēḫiš) and its apodosis, although the gist of the equation escapes us.
15The line commented upon does not seem to be preserved, but compare Šumma Ālu 49 57′: ina URU u-bar È, “a foreigner will go out of the city.”
16The gist of the first explanation of the line is unclear.
17Since both the protasis and the apodosis of the omen are cited in the previous line, one would expect that the first few damaged signs of this line contain a commentarial entry justifying the pairing of the protasis and the apodosis. The interpretation of the signs, however, escapes us.
18According to CAD P 251b, the first word would be <uš>-ta-pa-áš-šá-aṭ, “you make ... efface ...,” but the interpretation offered here seems more likely. In the word lu-uʾ-ḫe-pí, the ḫe-pí-note seems to have been written over an erasure. The equation was originally lu-ʾ-tu₄ : mur-ṣu, an equation well attested elsewhere.
19ḫi-lu šá qa-né-e could also be part of a new entry.
20The reading of the first signs as ⸢LIBIR.RA⸣-šu, proposed inter alii by Hunger AOAT 2 p. 120 no. 410, is epigraphically uncertain, and would result in awkward syntax.