| || || |
BE iz-bu SAG.DU UR.MAḪ GAR NUN LUGALtú ŠÚtú DABbat
(1) "If an anomalous foetus has the head of a lion, a prince will seize kingship of the world” (= Incipit of Šumma Izbu VII).
meṭ-lu-tú DUak mé-eṭ-lu-tú : ši-bu-ú-tú : MIN : lit-tu-tú 1
(2) In “He will reach mature age” (= Šumma Izbu VII 3), “mature age” means “old age"; the same word means “(extreme) old age.”
KUR ina ṭe-em ra-ma-ni-šú i-tak-kal : it-ku-lu : ḫa-ra-ṣu 2
(3) In “The land will devastate itself of its own accord” (= Šumma Izbu VII 31), “to devastate” means “to break off.”
KURtú DU : KUR ṭar-du-tu : KUR : ḫúb-tu : ṭar-du : ra-ad-du 3
(4) In “He will go into exile” (= Šumma Izbu VII unknown), KUR (can mean) “exile”; KUR (also can mean) “captive”; “an exile” means “a pursued one”; (this equivalence, i.e. between “an exile” and “pursued one” is because) SAR (can mean) “to exile” (and) SAR (can also mean) “to pursue.”
SAR : ṭa-ra-du : SAR : ra-da-du : BE iz-bu SAG.DU-su NU GÁL-ma
(5) In “If an anomalous foetus has no head, but has swollen flesh instead of its head” (= Šumma Izbu VII unknown), “swollen” (means) “big.”
ina maš-kán SAG.DU-šú UZU ul-lu-ṣu GAR : ul-lu-ṣu ra-bu-ú 4
eš-re-e-tú : É-MEŠ : GIM as-suk-ku kup-pu-ut-ma GAR 5
(7) The word “shrines” means “temples” (= Šumma Izbu VII unknown). In “(If the head of an anomalous foetus) is rolled into a ball like a sling-stone” (= Šumma Izbu VII unknown), “sling-stone” (means) “lumpy swelling”; “sling-stone” means “clay rolled into a ball”; (in) IM.DUGUD, (which) means “sling-stone,” IM means “clay” (and) DUGUD means “heavy”; alternatively, “sling-stone” means “lump (of earth)”; “sling-stone” means “stone for a sling,”
as-suk-ku ze-er-pi : as-suk-ku : ṭi-id kup-pu-ut 6
IM.DUGUD : as-suk-ku : IM : ṭi-id : <<ṭi-id :>> DUGUD : kab-tú 7
šá-niš as-suk-ku : kur-ban-nu : as-suk-ku : ab-nu aṣ-pi 8
lìb-bu-u i-kim-šú aṣ-pa-šú as-suk-ka-šú ú-saḫ-ḫi-ir 9
(11) as in “He took away his sling; he repelled his sling-stone” (partial quotation from Ludlul Bēl Nēmeqi – see note).
UZU GIM gišŠENNUR ZIiḫ : na-si-iḫ : šá-kin : MA : na-sa-ḫu MA šá-ka-nu 10
(12) In “(...) flesh is torn out like a plum” (= Šumma Izbu VII unknown), “torn out” means “placed” (because) MA (can mean) “to tear out” (and) MA (can also mean) “to place,” (as in) al-ŋá-ŋá al-ŋá-ŋá šà-ba-ni nu-sed-da (which means) “he tears out (and) places (it), (but) his heart does not rest” – it is said in the corpus of lamentation priests.
al-ŋá-ŋá al-ŋá-ŋá šà-ba-ni nu-sed-da
i-na-as-sa-aḫ i-šak-kan lìb-bi-šú ul i-na-ḫu ina lúUŠ.<KU>ú-tú qa-bi 11
da-kiš : da-ka-šú : du-uk-ku-uš : da-ga-šú : ra-bu-u 12
(15) The word “(it) is pressed in” (= Šumma Izbu VII unknown) (stems from) “to press in” (as does the word) “(it) is swollen.” (The word) “to press in” means “to become big.”
ši-pir ṭuḫ-du DU : ši-pi-ir ṭu-uḫ-du il-lak : šal-ṭiš 13
(16) The phrase “a message of abundance DU” (= Šumma Izbu VII unknown) means “a message of abundance comes,” which means “triumphantly,”
lìb-bu-u šá-ad-di-ḫu <a>-ḫa-a-a ku-ta-at-tu-mu i-ta-ḫa-az
(17) as in “My arms (once) far-reaching are now tight by my side and grasping each other; I, who used to stride out as a lord, have learned to creep past inconspicuously” [said] in Ludlul Bēl Nēmeqi (I 76-77).”
šá e-ti-li-iš at-tal-la-ku ḫa-la-liš al-ma-du 14
ina lud-lul EN <<É>> né-me-qa qa-bi ana bu-ul ḫe-pí<(dGÌR)> 15
(19) In “For the livestock of (it is broken), wind (and) rain will decrease in the land of the peaks” (= Šumma Izbu VII unknown), the phrase “the land of the peaks” (it is broken); alternatively (it means) “at the beginning of the year, wind and rain will decrease.”
IM ŠÈG ana KUR re-še-e-ti LÁa : KUR re-še-e-tú ḫe-pí
šá-niš ina re-eš šat-ti šá-a-ri u zu-un-nu i-ma-aṭ-ṭu-⸢ú!⸣ 16
na-mur-ra-as-su GABA.RI NU TUKUši : na-mur-ra-as-su :
(22) In “His awe-inspiring radiance will acquire no rival” (= Šumma Izbu VII unknown), the phrase “his awe-inspiring radiance” is said in Erimḫuš to mean NI₂ (to be pronounced) “NI,” NI₂.GAL, SU.LIM (and) ME.LEM₄.MA (which respectively mean) “fearsomeness,” “mind-blowing brilliance,” “breathtaking luminosity” (and) “astonishing resplendence.”
NÍni : NÍ.GAL : SU.LIM me!-lám-ma : pu-luḫ-tú nam-ri-ir-ri
šá-lum-ma-tú : me-lam-mu ina ERIM.ḪUŠ qa-bi 17
bur-ru-um : bu-ur-ru-um : bur-ru-mu : bá-ri-im 18
(25) The word bur-ru-um (= Šumma Izbu VII unknown) (can also be written) bu-ur-ru-um. (It is derived from) “to be multi-colored” (and) means “it is variegated.”
pur-ru-ru!(MU) : su-up-pu-ḫu : mar-ši-it KUR dUTUši : mar-ši-it : bu-šu-u 19
(26) The word “to disperse” (= Šumma Izbu VII 154′) means “to scatter”; in “goods from the east” (= Šumma Izbu VII 154'), “goods” means “property”; (because) NIG.GAL.LA means “property” (and) NIG.GAL.LA (also) means “goods.”
NÍG.GÁL.LA : bu-šu-ú : NÍG.GÁL.LA : mar-ši-tu₄
qé-e-el : ḫe-pu-ú : KU₅.DU : qé-e-el : KU₅.DU : ḫe-pu-u 20
(28) The form “it is crushed” (= Šumma Izbu VII 156′) means “to smash.” KUD.DU means “it is crushed,” KUD.DU (also) means “to smash,” (as in) “The dripping-eyed’s lap is full of clods; (he says), ‘Whoever approaches me and kisses me, I shall crush him!’” — which is said in the Series of Sidu.
lìb-bu-ú ṣu-uḫ-ḫu-tú kur-ban-né-e su-un-šú ma-li šá i-qer-ru-ba-am-ma 21
i-né-ši-qa-an-ni a-qé-él-šú šá ina ÉŠ.GÀR mSI.DÙ Eú 22
ku-up-pu-ut : li-ip-tú nu-šur-ru-ú ki-ma PÚ-MEŠ ḫur-ru-šú 23
(31) The phrase “is compacted” (= Šumma Izbu VII unknown) means “an affliction of diminution (in the flesh): its (i.e., the affliction’s) holes are like pits.”
BE iz-bu UZU GIM su-ru-um-mi am-ma-at ina SAG.KI-šú GÍD.DA GÁL 24
(32) In “If the flesh of an anomalous foetus is like a small colon (and) there is a forearm on its forehead that is long” (= Šumma Izbu VII 164), SAG.GAR means “small colon,” (and) “small colon” means “intestines.”
SAG.GAR : su-ru-um-mi su-ru-um-mi er-ru : KUR su-un-qam IGI-ma 25
(33) In “The land will experience famine and follow a strong man” (= Šumma Izbu VII unknown) the word “famine” (su-un-qam) (is derived from) sunqu; alternatively, (it can be written) sun₇-qu. (It) means “distress”; alternatively, “famine.”
EGIR EN Á.KAL DUku : su-un-qam : su-un-qu šá-niš sun₇-qu : dan-na-tú : šá-niš su-un-qa 26
UL.LA šu-ut KA u maš-a-a-al-ti šá KA um-man-nu šá ŠÀ
(35) Lemmata, oral explanations, and (materials for) a ‘questioning,’ following the sayings of a (master-)scholar (relating to entries) from (the Series) “If an Anomalous Birth Has a Lion's Head.” Eighth (tablet). 'Reading' (from the Series) “If an Anomalous Birth ... .” Incomplete.
BE iz-bu SAG.DU UR.MAḪ GAR 8ú mál-su-ut BE iz-bu là AL.TIL 27
BE iz-bu 2 SAG.DU-MEŠ-šú GÚ-su 1-ma IGI.TAB
(37) (The Series) “If an Anomalous Birth Has Two Heads, but Only One Neck.” Checked.
IM mBAšá-a bu-kúr mdINANA-MU-KAM ŠÀ.BAL.BAL
(38) Tablet of Iqīšāya, offspring of Ištar-šuma-īriš, scion of Ēkur-zākir, the incantation priest, an Urukean.
mÉ.KUR-za-kir lúMAŠ.MAŠ UNUGki ú
1As noted by Finkel (2006: 141), the spelling mé-eṭ-lu-tú enables the correction of Leichty’s interpretation of BAD-lu-tu in the protasis of Šumma Izbu VII 3. The word meṭlūtu is also commented on in the commentary CCP 3.6.3.D (l. 14), on Šumma Izbu XIV (line unpreserved), where it is again equated with littūtu as well as with itbarūtu, “skill.”
2As Finkel (2006: 141) notes, this line comments on l. 32 of Šumma izbu, which is preserved only in SpTU 4 no. 142 l. 21. The Principal Commentary, l. 254b-c, comments on the same phrase. Finkel also suggests that, on the basis of its attestation here, the verb harāṣu may have the nuance “to diminish.”
3The reading of the initial signs as KUR-tú DU rather than as KUR E₃ (so Finkel 2006) follows Gabbay (NABU 2009/3 no. 53 p. 69). As Gabbay notes, with the help of the Principal Commentary to Šumma Izbu VII, line 257, the entire protasis can be reconstructed as “The ruler will go into exile in a land not his own,” which also occurs in an extispicy omen. The reading ḫúb-tu rather than kab-tu (so Finkel) in the line's second equation also follows Gabbay. With respect to the third equation, the same justification for equating “an exile” with “a pursued one” (i.e., ṭardu with raddu) is found in the Principal Commentary, l. 254d-e, as Finkel notes.
4As noted by Finkel (2006: 142), both the Principal Commentary (ll. 261-2) and Commentary V (l. 254f-g) also comment on this line, as does another commentary on Šumma izbu, CCP 3.6.2.A. The basis for the comment seems to be the different meanings of ulluṣu, which can mean both “to be (physically) swollen” and “to make joyful.”
5As noted by Finkel (2006: 142), the equation of ešrētu with bītātu is otherwise attested in the Principal Commentary (l. 89), with respect to Šumma izbu II 19.
6The word zerpu also appears in the Principal Commentary on Šumma Izbu 12, where it is equated with imšukku, an equation found elsewhere (see Gabbay, NABU 2009/3 no. 53 pp. 69-70). According to Finkel (1986: 142), the description of assukku as ṭīdu kupputu anticipates the equation of IM.DUGUD with assukku at the start of the following line.
7The equation of IM.DUGUD with assukku is attested in Hh X 504, Hg A II 132, and Igituh I 320. As noted by Finkel (2006: 142), the phonetic similarity between kupputu – mentioned in the omen's protasis and in the preceding line of the commentary – and kabtu (= DUGUD) may have been meaningful to the commentator. The second occurrence of ṭīdu in this line seems to be a dittography, as noted by M.-F. Besnier in her edition of the text for GKAB.
8Both IM.DUGUD and assukku are equated with kurbannu (wr. kirbannu) in Hg A, and so this text may have been the commentator’s source for the equation assukku = kurbannuin the present line and the equation IM.DUGUD = assukku in the preceding line.
9This is an incomplete quotation of a line from Ludlul Bēl Nēmeqi III (BWL p. 56). As noted by Finkel (2006: 142), it is interesting that the commentator casually omits “Marduk” (the subject of both verbs) and “my destroyer” (the owner of the sling and sling-stone) in his quotation of the line.
10For plum-related images in Šumma Izbu see the passages gathered by Finkel (2006: 142).
11The equation of MA with nasāhu is not otherwise attested. The reading of the penultimate words of the line as ina! lú!UŠ.<KU>-ú-tú, “from the corpus of lamentation priests” (i.e., an Emesal prayer), follows Gabbay's suggestion (NABU 2006/4 no. 81 p. 81 and NABU 2009/3 no. 53 p. 70) rather than Finkel, who read <ina> LUGAL NITA+ú-tú, “King, heroism” - an otherwise unattested composition. It is unclear from which Emesal prayer the commentator is quoting in this instance.
12The spelling of dakāšu as dagāšu is not otherwise attested. As noted by Finkel (2006: 143), the equation of dak/gāšu with rabû is also attested in another commentary on Šumma izbu (CCP 3.6.2.A, l. 269a). In light of this equation, dakāšu seems more likely to mean “to swell, bulge” (so AHw 151) than “to pierce, sting” (so CAD D 34-5).
13Since the Principal Commentary (ll. 270-1) and another commentary on Šumma izbu (CCP 3.6.2.A) both explain šipir GABA as šipir irti (which they then equate with habarattu, "clamor"), Finkel (2006: 143) suggests that the otherwise unattested expression šipir ṭuhdi DU is a textual misunderstanding of the phrase ši-pir GABA DU.DU. However, the phrase šipir irti is only attested in these commentaries; its meaning is thus uncertain, and it is not necessarily the correct interpretation of the phrase.
14The support provided by these two lines of Ludlul bēl nēmeqi for the equation made in l. 16 is not as strong as one would expect, and may therefore be further evidence that the author of the commentary did not understand the base text (Frahm 2011: 102 n. 527).
15As noted by Finkel (2006: 143), the erroneous writing of the sign É or KID after EN may have been caused by the frequent sign combination en-líl. The restoration of Šakkan after būl follows the suggestion of Finkel (2006: 143).
16As pointed out by Finkel (2006: 143), although this commentary understands the signs IM ŠEG₃ as two words (“wind” and “rain”), another commentary on Šumma izbu (CCP 3.6.2.A, l. 271a) understands them as a compound logogram for “rain.” However, as Finkel (2006: 143) also notes, the same commentary (l. 271b) agrees with the present commentary in understanding the phrase KUR re-še-e-ti as rēš šatti, “new year/ beginning of the year.” The reading of the last sign is courtesy of Enrique Jimēnez; it was read by Finkel as i-ma-aṭ-ṭu E.
17As noted by Finkel (2006: 143), the section of Erimhuš cited by the commentator in ll. 22-24 is otherwise unplaced. For discussion of the “vertical” style of quotation used by the commentator here, see Finkel (ad loc.) and Frahm (2011: 88-89), both of whom cite Cavigneaux (1976: 151-152).
18It is unclear why the unusual value of the sign PA, bá, is used to write barim, nor why the otherwise uncommon G-stem of barāmu is invoked to explain the common D-stem.
19As noted by Finkel (2006: 144), the writing BUR-ru-mu is a mistake caused by the influence of the burrumu-forms in the previous line. The same equation appears in the Principal Commentary (l. 237), where purruru is spelt pur-rù-rum. The Principal Commentary (l. 280) also comments on maršīt šamši, but equates the phrase instead with būlum, “cattle.”
20The interpretation of this line follows Gabbay (NABU 2009/3 no. 53 p. 70).
21The translation of ṣuhhutu follows Gabbay (NABU 2009/3 no. 53 p. 70).
22As discussed by Jiménez NABU 2018/46, the line quoted is attested in the tablet of bilingual proverbs BM 38539, published by Lambert BWL (1960) pp. 266–267 and pl. 67. As discussed by Jiménez, whereas the original text uses the verb sanāqu (the Akkadian counterpart to Sumerian tèĝ), the line in the commentary uses qerēbu, a verb of similar meaning, but one that is never equated with tèĝ (the verb of the original Sumerian version) in lexical lists or bilingual texts. This suggests that the exegete quoted the line from memory, and that he knew only the Akkadian version of the proverb, and not the Sumerian.
23On the equation of liptu with nušurrû see Gabbay (NABU 2009/3 no. 53 p. 71 n. 16). The interpretation of this line follows Gabbay (NABU 2009/3 no. 53 p. 70).
24Finkel (2006: 145) tentatively translates the second part of this protasis as “and the elbow is stretched to the temple.”
25As noted by Finkel (2006: 145), the equation surummu = erri riqītu appears in the Principal Commentary (l. 282).
26As noted by Finkel (2006: 145), comparable omen apodoses to “the land will experience famine and follow a strong man” are noted in CAD E 161 s.v. bēl emūqi. As also noted by Finkel (2006: 146), sun₇ is a rarely attested value of KAL. He suggests that the equation of sunqu with dannatu may be due to the equation KI.KAL = dannatu.
27The protasis “If an Anomalous Birth has a Lion’s Head” is the beginning of the first line of (and thus the incipit for) the seventh tablet of Šumma Izbu.