CCP 3.1.8.A.a - Enūma Anu Enlil 8 A

Catalogue information
Louvre Museum
AO 6464
Uruk(Uruk)
CDLI: 
P363690
Publication
Copy: 
TCL 6 17
Editions: 

Robson, 2009 (GKAB)

Hunger, 1995H. Hunger, Ein Kommentar zu Mond-Omina, in Vom Alten Orient zum Alten Testament. Festschrift für Wolfram Freiherrn von Soden zum 85. Geburtstag am 19. Juni 1993, W. Dietrich and Loretz, O. , Eds. Butzon & Kevelaer, 1995, pp. 105-118.: 105-118

Commentary
DivinationAstrological. Enūma Anu Enlil

ṣâtu 4b

Base text: 
Enūma Anu Enlil 8
Commentary no: 
A
Tablet information
Babylonian
Complete tablet
Columns: 
1
Lines: 
obv 38, rev 44
Size: 
12 × 6 cm
Early Hellenistic (late 4th cent) (Uruk, Iqīšāya)
Colophon
Iqīšāya s. Ištar-šumu-ēriš d. Ekurzakir
Bibliography

Clancier, 2009P. Clancier, Les bibliothèques en Babylonie dans le deuxième moitié du 1er millénaire av. J.-C. Ugarit-Verlag, 2009.: 30 fn. 54

Frahm, 2011E. Frahm, Babylonian and Assyrian Text Commentaries. Origins of Interpretation. Ugarit-Verlag, 2011.
[New composition?]
: 29-30, 52, 79-80, 92-93, 142, 293, 297, 333-35

Gabbay, 2016U. Gabbay, The Exegetical Terminology of Akkadian Commentaries. Brill, 2016.
[On line r 22]
: 237

Hunger, 1968H. Hunger, Babylonische und assyrische Kolophone. Neukirchener Verlag, 1968.
[Colophon]
: 48 no. 113

Hunger, 1995H. Hunger, Ein Kommentar zu Mond-Omina, in Vom Alten Orient zum Alten Testament. Festschrift für Wolfram Freiherrn von Soden zum 85. Geburtstag am 19. Juni 1993, W. Dietrich and Loretz, O. , Eds. Butzon & Kevelaer, 1995, pp. 105-118.
[Edition]
: 105-118

Koch, 1998J. Koch, Zur Bedeutung von ina UGU ṭur-ri .. in zwei Astronomical Diaries, Welt des Orients, vol. 29, pp. 109-123, 1998.
[On line 38-40: Mentions phenomenon that occurred in 321 BC?]
: 116-123

Pearce, 1998L. E. Pearce, Babylonian Commentaries and Intellectual Innovation, in Intellectual Life of the Ancient Near East. Papers Presented at the 43rd Rencontre assyriologique internationale, J. Prosecký, Ed. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Oriental Institute, 1998, pp. 331-338.
[On line 17-18: Antagal III 199-200]
: 338

Record
Robson, 01/2009 (ATF Transliteration)
Robson, 01/2009 (Lemmatization)
Frazer, 02/2016 (Translation)
Frazer, 02/2016 (Annotation)
Frazer, 02/2016 (Introduction)
Jiménez, 08/2016 (Commentary markup)
By Mary Frazer | Make a correction or suggestion
How to cite
Frazer, M., 2016, “Commentary on Enūma Anu Enlil 8 (CCP 3.1.8.A.a),” Cuneiform Commentaries Project (E. Frahm, E. Jiménez, M. Frazer, and K. Wagensonner), 2013–2020; accessed July 12, 2020, at https://ccp.yale.edu/P363690. DOI: 10079/hqbzkvx
© Cuneiform Commentaries Project (Citation Guidelines)
Introduction

A completely preserved cola-type commentary on Tablet 8 of Enūma Anu Enlil, one of six commentaries on this series found in Uruk, whose colophons indicate that they belonged to the well-known scholar, exorcist, owner of a brewer’s prebend, and (perhaps) teacher, Iqīšāya, who was active in Uruk in the late fourth century.1 This particular manuscript is one of several tablets belonging to Iqīšāya that was found by unauthorized diggers, and so it is unclear whether it was found in Iqīšāya’s private library (in the U18 quarter of Uruk) or in a library in the grounds of the Bīt Rēš temple.

The tablet’s subscript is type ṣâtu 4b, in other words the tablet classifies itself as “Lemmata and oral explanations (relating to) a ‘reading’ (malsûtu) of the series of Enūma Anu Enlil and referring to entries from “If in Tašritu the Moon is surrounded by a lunar halo.” This type of subscript is found only on tablets from Uruk containing commentaries on EAE.2 The colophon also includes the catch-line to EAE 9, thereby indicating that scholars in Hellenistic Uruk used a commentary series on various tablets of EAE. A final feature of the colophon is the word uppuš, literally “made.” The precise meaning of this word in the context of colophons is uncertain; it seems unlikely, for instance, that it refers to a newly composed text.3

A different feature of this manuscript may nevertheless support the proposal that the commentary is, at least in part, a new composition. As argued by J. Koch,4 the commentarial remark (r 38-40) refers to an astronomical phenomenon that in the first millennium is only attested on 15/16 October 321 BCE. Koch accordingly suggests that this phenomenon’s occurrence prompted the remark – the final remark in the commentary. Also relevant to the question of the text’s composition date is the absence of ḫepi-glosses in the manuscript.5 Such an absence supports the idea that this commentary is a new composition. However, another explanation for a lack of ḫepi-glosses is also possible: it may simply indicate that the Vorlage was perfectly preserved.

The commentary comments on 43 omens, and the order in which these omens are cited deviates slightly from the order in the base text (in its currently known form). Most of the commentarial entries have the purpose of elucidating astronomically impossible or unclear statements in the base text. For example, the commentary is often concerned with explaining the base text’s description of (impossible) movements of fixed stars and constellations. The commentary does so by equating the relevant stars and constellations with planets, which do move. For example, (1) the commentary explains the appearance of the star “Kidney” in the Moon’s right horn by stating that “Kidney” is another name for the planet Mercury (lines o 5-8); (2) the commentary’s explains the appearance of the constellation the “Yoke” inside the Moon’s lunar halo by stating that the “Yoke” is a name for the planet Jupiter when Jupiter is in the constellation the “Bull of Heaven” (lines r 14-16). Further examples of this type of explanation abound. Another type of explanation found in this commentary is that based on the equation of a planet with a particular color. For example, the red, black and yellow-green appearance of the Moon’s right horn is respectively explained as meaning that the planets Mars, Saturn, and Venus are approach it (o 8-11).

Some of the explanations in this commentary are paraphrases, such as the explanation of the protasis “If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo of fog” as meaning that the Moon “is surrounded by a lunar halo in fog” (r 23), or the explanation of the apodosis “a defeat will be inflicted” as “a massacre will take place” (r 3). Other explanations amount to simple translations of a logographic phrase into Akkadian. For example, lugal kur šub-ta tuš-eb (o 31) is explained as Akkadian šarru māta nadīta ušeššeb (“a king will settle an abandoned land”), and eme bar-tu (o 33) is explained as lišānu aḫītu (“foreign language”).

The commentary contains three lexical equations that are not attested elsewhere: the first two are the equation of the Sumerian su with kibsu, “foot,” and nabāṭu, “to shine” (o 17). The third is the equation of with pelû, “light red” (r 16-17).

 

Of the lexical series that served as sources for some of the commentary’s explanations, Hunger6 identifies Izi, Erimhuš (?), Antagal (twice), Sb (?), Nabnītu, Ea, HAR-ra (three times), and Sa.

Technical terms used in the commentary are: šanîš (o 3, 7, 14, 23, 31, 34, 38; r 18, 26, 30, 36, 38 (x 2)), ša iqbû (o 4, 27), ina libbi ... iqbi (o 9, r 19), aššu (o 19, 28; r 32, 35), ana muḫḫi ... qabi (o 38 (partially restored), r 22), kayyānu (r 38). The phrase nu dù (o 23) may be the remark of a student in reference to the preceding commentarial note (“I did not do (it)”). However, the logographic writing makes this interpretation uncertain.

 

The present edition is greatly indebted to H. Hunger’s edition.7 In addition, it has benefited greatly from the electronic edition prepared by Eleanor Robson for the GKAB project, which was kindly made available by its editor.

Edition

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TCL 06, 17

Obverse
o 1o 1

⸢*⸣ SI 15-šú ana im1 GÍD.DA : GU₄.U₄ ana imU₁₈.LU ina SI 15-šú GUB-ma ki-i ina itiDU₆ 1

(o 1) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) right horn is long to the south" (= Enūma Anu Enlil VIII = ACh Sîn 6 ll. 3-4) means that Mercury stands to the south in its (i.e., the moon's) right horn; if on the 14th of Tašritu (month VII) an eclipse has taken place, it (i.e., the eclipse) begins in the south and clears in the north.

o 22

[U₄] 14-KÁM AN.GE₆ il-ta-kan ina imU₁₈.LU SAR-ma ina imSI. ZÁLAG-ma

o 33

* SI 15-šú ana im3 GUB : U₄ 1-KAM ana imKUR.RA NIM-ma : šá-niš dUDU.IDIM TE-šú-ma 2

(o 3) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) right horn stands to the east" (= Enūma Anu Enlil VIII = ACh Sîn 6 ll. 7-8) means that on the first day it (i.e., the Moon) rises in the east; alternatively (it means that) a planet approaches it. The goodness or evil, which they predict in an eclipse: if light begins in the east, it (i.e., the prediction) is good; if it (i.e. the light) is affected (in some way) and begins (in the east), it (i.e., the prediction) is evil.

o 44

SIG₅ u lum-nu šá ina AN.GE₆ iq-bu-ú : ina imKUR.RA ZÁLAG SAR-ma SIG₅ : lap-tu 3

o 55

SAR-ma lum-nu : * 30 U₄ 30-KAM IGI <:> ina tur-ru u₄-mu IGI-ma : * 30 ina itiAPIN U₄ 1-KAM 4

(o 5) "If the Moon is visible on the 30th day" (= Enūma Anu Enlil VIII unknown) (means) it is visible on the 'rejection of the day' (i.e., the 29th day).

(o 5) "If, when the Moon appears on the first day of Arahsamnu (Month VIII), the Kidney stands in its (i.e., the Moon's) right horn" (= Enūma Anu Enlil VIII = ACh Suppl 1, 9 ll. 2-3) means that on the first day Mercury's right horn stands in the Scorpion; alternatively (it means that) Lisi approaches it (i.e., the Moon). "The Kidney" (means) "Mercury." "In the Scorpion" means "it lights up"; "it rises" means "it dries up"; "to rise" means "to dry up."

o 66

ina IGI.-šú ina SI 15-šú mulÉLLAG GUB : U₄ 1-KAM GU₄.U₄ ina mùlGÍR.TAB ina SI 15-šú GUB-ma : 5

o 77

šá-niš dLI₉.SI₄ TE-šú-ma : mulÉLLAG <:> GU₄.U₄ : ina mùlGÍR.TAB : ina-pu-uḫ 6

o 88

i-na-bu- : ib-bal : na-ba-ʾu : a-ba-lu : * SI 15-šú SA₅ AN TE⸣-šú-ma 7

(o 8) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) right horn is red" (= Enūma Anu Enlil VIII = ACh Suppl 1, 9 ll. 6-7) means that Mars approaches it (i.e., the Moon's right horn). "Fire will consume a prominent temple" means that an eclipse (i.e., of the moon) (takes place) in Šitaddaru opposite the Rooster; it (i.e., the text) says (lit. "said") it with respect to "fire."

o 99

É DINGIR SIG IZI GU₇ : AN.GE₆ ina mùlSIPA.ZI.AN.NA ana tar-ṣi DAR.LUGAL ina ŠÀ IZI iq-bi 8

o 1010

* SI 15-šú GE₆ : dGENNA TE-šú-ma : SIG₇ : dele-bat TE-šú-ma : KIN-MEŠ-šú te-re-tu-šú 9

(o 10) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) right horn is black" means that Saturn approaches it.

(o 10) "(If) it (i.e., the Moon's right horn) is yellow-green" (= Enūma Anu Enlil VIII = ACh Suppl 1, 9 ll. 8-9) means that Venus approaches it. KIN-MEŠ-šu (means) "its omens"; KIN means "omen." "DAG" means "dwelling"(šubtu); (because) DAG (followed by) KAM corresponds to dak-kan (which means) "dwelling"; (and) "abode" (mūšabu) means dakkannu.

o 1111

KIN : ter-tu₄ : DAG : šu-ub-tu₄ : DAG <<:>> KAM : dak-kan : šu-ub-tu₄ 10

o 1212

mu-šá-bu : dak-kan-na : * 30 ina itiGAN U₄ 1-KAM ina IGI.-šú SI-MEŠ-šú ud-du-da-ma 11

(o 12) "If, when the Moon appears on the first day of Kislimu (Month IX), its horns are pointed and bright" (refers to the Moon) that appears on the first day imbued with brilliance; on the 14th day it stands in front of the Sun; alternatively (it means that) on the first day Venus has the same longitude as it.

o 1313

ZÁLAG-MEŠ : šá U₄ 1-KAM IGI-ma šá-ru-ru na-šu-ú : U₄ 14-KAM ina IGI dUTU GUB :

o 1414

šá-niš U₄ 1-KAM dele-bat KI-šú LÁL-ma : * SI-MEŠ-šú DAR₄-MEŠ-ma mùlis le-e ana IGI-šú GUB <:> 12

(o 14) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) horns are dark and the Bull's Jaw stands in front of it" (means that) on the first day Mercury is near it; on the 14th day the Bull's Jaw stands to the front of it.

o 1515

U₄ 1-KAM GU₄.U₄ ṭe-ḫi-šú-ma : U₄ 14-KAM mulis le-e ana IGI-šú GUB-ma 13

o 1616

* SI-MEŠ-šú kap-ṣa : U₄ 1-KAM dSÀG.ME.GAR u dele-bat ina SI 15-šú u 2.30-šú GUB-ME-ma

(o 16) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) horns are bent (kapṣā)" means that on the first day Jupiter and Venus stand in its right and left horns. SU means "step" (kibsu); SU means "to shine." (The writing) ina-GUL-ma means "it will demolish" (inaqqarma); GUL means "to demolish"; GUL means "to destroy." IR.PAG means "they plotted"; IR.PAG means "to plot"; IR.PAG means "to swell"; ir-hu means hasty, because "to speed up" means "to hasten."

o 1717

SU : kib-su : SU : na-ba-ṭu : inaGUL-ma : i-na-qar-ma : GUL : na-qa-ri 14

o 1818

GUL : a-ba-tu₄ : IR.PAG : ik-pu-du : IR.PAG : ka-pa-du : IR.PAG 15

o 1919

e-me-e-ri : ir-ḫu : ḫa-an-ṭu : -šum ur-ru-ḫu : ḫa-ma-ṭu

o 2020

* SI-MEŠ-šú nen-mu-du : AN u dele-bat ina SI-MEŠ-šú GUB-MEŠ-ma : ILLAT-MEŠ : pu-uḫ-ri

(o 20) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) horns are touching" means that Mars and Venus stand in its (i.e., the Moon's) horns. "Groups" means "assembly." "Leader" means "pre-eminent one"; ditto ("leader") means "he who goes at the front."

o 2121

mas--u : a-šá-re-du : MIN<(mas--u)> : a-lik maḫ-ri : * SI-MEŠ-šú ke-pa-a 2 GIŠ.ḪUR NIGIN-MEŠ <<:>>

(o 21) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) horns are curved (and) are surrounded by two cruciform halos" (means that) on the first day they are imbued with brilliance and are surrounded by two cruciform halos.

o 2222

U₄ 1-KAM šá-ru-ru ÍL-ma u 2 GIŠ.ḪUR NÍGIN-ma : * SI-MEŠ-šú GIŠ.ḪUR NIGIN-MEŠ <<:>>

(o 22) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) horns are surrounded by a cruciform halo" (means that) on the first day (and) on the 14th day it is surrounded by a cruciform halo; alternatively (it means that) as long as no eclipse (occurs), it is surrounded by a cruciform halo; I did not do (it). (If) the planets stand below the Moon, it is (a) good (sign); (if) a large star stands below the Moon, it is (an) evil (sign).

o 2323

U₄ 1-KAM U₄ 14-KAM GIŠ.ḪUR NÍGIN-ma : šá-niš a-di la AN.GE₆ GIŠ.ḪUR NÍGIN-ma : 16

o 2424

dUDU.IDIM-MEŠ KI.TA 30 GUB-MEŠ-ma SIG₅ : MÙL GAL KI.TA 30 GUB-ma lum-nu 17

o 2525

* SI-MEŠ-šú DAR₄-MEŠ mulSIPA.ZI.AN.NA ana IGI-šú GUB : U₄ 1-KAM GENNA ina DUNGU 18

(o 25) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) horns are dark (and) Šitaddaru stands in front of it" means that on the first day Saturn stands with it in cloud; (or it means that) Šitaddaru rises acronychally opposite it.

o 2626

KI-[šú] GUB-ma : mùlSIPA.ZI.AN.NA ana tar-ṣi-šú ana u₄-me E₁₁-ma : * dele-bat 19

(o 26) "If Venus flashes in its (i.e., the Moon's) right horn so that it (i.e., Venus) can be seen" means that Venus sets on the first day; (with respect to) "it can be seen" (lit. "an observer sees") this is what it says (lit. said), because the Moon is visible during daytime. (The phrase) "la₃ GEŠTU₂-su" means "unwise." "He will dwell in his land of ruination" (means) "he will dwell in his land that was ruined."

o 2727

ina SI 15-šú ŠUR-ma a-mi-ru IGI : U₄ 1-KAM dele-bat ŠÚ-ma : a-mi-ru IGI šá iq-bu-u

o 2828

-šum 30 ina u₄-me IGI : GÉŠTUsu : la ḫa-as-su : KUR-su šá ḪUL TUŠab 20

o 2929

KUR-su šá šu-ul-pu-ta-at -šá-ab : * U₄.DA-su ek-let : U₄ 1-<KAM> TUR-ma

(o 29) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) light is dim" means that on the first day it (i.e., the Moon) is small.

o 3030

* U₄.DA ITI-šú ma-gal i-nam-bu-uṭ : U₄ 1-KAM dele-bat ina ITI EN.NUN IGI-ma 21

(o 30) "If the light of (the first day of) its (i.e., the Moon's) month gains radiance greatly" means that Venus appears on the first day in the month of observation; alternatively (it means that) it (i.e., the Moon) rises after a nidītu; it means that Mars and Venus approach it. (The phrase) LUGAL KUR ŠUB-!i{ta} TUŠ-!i{eb} means "a king will settle an abandoned land."

o 3131

šá-niš ár-ki ni-di-i-tu₄ KUR : AN u dele-bat TE-šú-ma : LUGAL KUR ŠUBta TUŠeb 22

o 3232

LUGAL KUR na-di-tu₄ ú-še--šeb : * a-dir <<:>> ina EN.TE.NA ina DUNGU IGI-ma 23

(o 32) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is dark" (means that) in winter it (i.e., the Moon) appears in cloud. (The phrase) EME BAR-tu" means "foreign language."

o 3333

EME BARtu₄ : li-šá-nu a-ḫi-tu₄ : * U₄.DA-su gal-ta-at : U₄ 1-KAM GENNA

(o 33) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) light is frightening" (means that) on the first day Saturn [and] Mercury approach it (i.e., the Moon). (The phrase) "an expeditionary force will conquer a hostile city" means that Mars will approach it (i.e., the Moon); alternatively (it means that) "an eclipse will take place in the Lion." The lord La-tarak of the exit.

o 3434

[u] GU₄⸣.U₄ TE-šú-ma È IRI KÚR KURad : dṣal-bat-a-nu TE-šú-ma : šá-niš 24

o 3535

[ina] mùlUR.GU.LA AN.GE₆ GAR-ma : e-tel-lu dla-ta-ra-⸢ak šá ṣi-i-tu₄ 25

o 3636

[*] TÙR NÍGIN-ma MÙL <<:>> dAMAR.UTU ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : du-un-qu u lum-nu šá [E?]u 26

(o 36) "[If] it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo" (means that) the Star of Marduk stands inside it. (With respect to) good or evil, [they say that] (if) the Star of Marduk becomes abnormally bright (and) stands above the Moon: it (i.e., the prediction) is good; if it is faint (and) stands below the Moon: it (i.e., the prediction) is evil; alternatively [it is said] with respect to winter and summer.

o 3737

MÙL dAMAR.UTU i-ba-ʾi-ìl AN.TA 30 GUB-ma : SIG₅ : un-⸢nu⸣-[ut]

o 3838

KI.⸢TA 30 GUB-ma lum-nu : šá-niš an UGU šá EN.TE.NA u AMA-MEŠ [...] 27

Reverse
r 1r 1

* TÙR NÍGIN-ma mulGU.LA ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : MÙL GAL ina mùlGU.LA [GUB?] 28

(r 1) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo, and the Great One stands inside it (i.e., the lunar halo)" (= ACh 2 Suppl 1a iii 34-35 // LBAT 1529: 20-21) means that a large star [stands] in the Great One. (The word) "siphu" means "evening"; (because) ŠU₂ means "siphu"; (and) ŠU₂ means "setting of the sun." "A defeat will be inflicted" means "a massacre will take place."

r 22

si-ip-ḫi : li-la-a-tu₄ : ŠÚ : si-ip-ḫi : ŠÚ : e-re-bi šá d⸣[UTUši] 29

r 33

BAD₅.BAD₅ SÌGaṣ : di-ik-tu₄ id-da-a-ka : * TÙR NÍGIN-ma MUL GAL

(r 3) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo, and a large star stands inside it" (= ACh 2 Suppl 1a iii 35 // LBAT 1529: 21) means that a large star stands in the Hired Man in a halo of the Moon.

r 44

ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : MÙL GAL ina mùl.ḪUN. ina TÙR 30 GUB-ma : * TÙR [NÍGIN]-ma 30

(r 4) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo, and the Panther stands inside it" means that Mars stands in the Great One in a halo of the Moon. "The rain will be early by one double-hour" means that the rain will be cut off at a distance; "to be early" means "to cut;" "to be early" means "to cut off."

r 55

mulU₄.KA.DU₈.A ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : AN ina mùlGU.LA ina TÙR 30 GUB-⸢ma 31

r 66

a-na 1 DÁNNA ŠÈG i-ḫar-ru-up : a-na ru-ú-qu ŠÈG ib-bat-taq

r 77

ḫa-ra-pu : na-ka-su : ḫa-ra-pu : ba-ta-qu : * 30 ina itiŠE U₄ 1-KAM 32

(r 7) "If the Moon, when it appears on the first day in Addaru (XII), is surrounded by a lunar halo, and Venus stands inside it" (= LBAT 1530 r 4) means that on the first day the Moon is surrounded by a halo in the region of the Hired Man, and Venus stands inside the halo of the Moon; it (i.e., the text) says (lit. said) (this) concerning an omen.

r 88

ina IGI.-šú TÙR NÍGIN-ma dele-bat ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : U₄ 1-KAM 30 ina KI mùlḪUN. / TÙR NÍGIN-ma

r 99

u dele-bat ina ŠÀ TÙR GUB-ma : ina ŠÀ ter-tu₄ iq-bi : * TÙR NÍGIN-ma

(r 9) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo, and the Scales light up and stand inside it" means that Saturn becomes abnormally bright (and) stands inside the halo of the Moon; "to light up" means "to become big," of "to be abnormally bright."

r 1010

mùlzi-ba-ni-tu₄ ŠUR-ma ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : GENNA i-ba-ʾi-ìl ina TÙR 30 GUB 33

r 1111

ṣa-ra-ri : ra-bu-u šá ba-a-lu : * TÙR NÍGIN-ma ka-bar u šu-par-ru-ru 34

(r 11) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo, and (if) it (i.e., the lunar halo) is thick and recumbent" means that on the first day it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a halo, and it (i.e., the lunar halo) is thick and recumbent. (The sign) DIRI means "to become scattered"; DIRI means "to spread out."

r 1212

U₄ 1-KAM TÙR NÍGIN-ma ka-bar u rab-⸢ṣu : DIRI : na-par-- : DIRI : še-ṭu-ú 35

r 1313

* TÙR NÍGIN-ma mùlGÍR.TAB ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : U₄ 1-KAM TÙR NÍGIN-ma mùlGÍR.TAB ana tar-ṣi-šú 36

(r 13) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo, and the Scorpion stands inside it (i.e., the lunar halo)" means that on the first day it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo and the Scorpion rises acronychally opposite it.

r 1414

ana u₄-me E₁₁-ma : * TÙR NÍGIN-ma mùlŠUDUN u MUL.MUL ina ŠÀ-šú GUB-MEŠ 37

(r 14) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo, and the Yoke and the Stars stand inside it (i.e., the lunar halo)" (means) that on the first day the Moon is surrounded by a halo in the Stars (and) the Bull of Heaven, and Jupiter stands inside the halo; (when) Jupiter (is) in the Bull of Heaven, its name is the Yoke.

r 1515

U₄ 1-KAM 30 ina MÙL.MÙL mùlGU₄.AN.NA TÙR NÍGIN-ma u dSÀG.ME.GAR ina ŠÀ TÙR GUB-ma 38

r 1616

dSÀG.ME.GAR ina mùlGU₄.AN.NA : mùlŠUDUN MU-šú : * SI-MEŠ-šú ud-du-⸢da-ma -MEŠ 39

(r 16) "If its (i.e., the Moon's) horns are pointed and SU₃" (= LBAT 1530 r 8) (means) that on the first day (and/or) on the 14th day it (i.e., the Moon) appears in a light red cloud; SU₃ means "light red."

r 1717

U₄ 1-KAM U₄ 14-KAM ina DUNGU pe-li-tu₄ IGI-ma : : pe-lu-ú 40

r 1818

* 1 MUL uḫ : U₄ 1-KAM ina ŠÀ <<ina ŠÀ>> dUDU.IDIM-MEŠ IGI-ma : šá-niš MÚL <ana> ŠÀ-šú

(r 18) "If one star rises" (= LBAT 1530 r 9) means that it appears among «among» the planets; alternatively (it means that) a star enters inside it; "Hired Man" means "the Moon"; it (i.e., the text) says (lit. he said) (this) with respect to Ur.

r 1919

KU₄-ma : múl.ḪUN. : d30 : ina ŠÀ ŠEŠ.UNUGki iq-bi : * 30 ina IGI.-šú

(r 19) "If when the Moon appears it is surrounded by a lunar halo" means that either on the first day or on the 14th day, at the summer acronychal rising, it is surrounded by a halo.

r 2020

TÙR NÍGIN : lu ina U₄ 1-KAM lu ina U₄ 14-KAM ina E₁₁ u₄-me šá AMA-MEŠ TÙR

r 2121

NÍGIN-ma : * TÙR MUL-MEŠ NIGIN : lu ina 1(IKU)gána : lu ina KUN-ME MUL x NU NÍGIN-ma 41

(r 21) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo of stars" means that either in the Field or in the Tails it is surrounded by ... star(s).

r 2222

* TÙR dTIR.AN.NA NÍGIN : ana UGU AMA-MEŠ u EN.TE.NA qa-bi 42

(r 22) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo of a rainbow" means that it is said in connection with summer or winter.

r 2323

* TÙR MURU₉ NÍGIN : ina MURU₉ TÙR NÍGIN-ma : .ZA.ZA : mu-ṣa-ʾi-ir-ra-nu 43

(r 23) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo of fog" (= LBAT 1530 r 10) means that it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo in fog; "BI₂.ZA.ZA" means "frog."

r 2424

* TÙR me-ḫe-e NÍGIN : U₄ 1-KAM TÙR NÍGIN-ma u me-ḫe-e GUB-ma

(r 24) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo of storm-wind" means that on the first day it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo and a storm-wind is blowing.

r 2525

* TÙR tal-lak- DINGIR NÍGIN : U₄ 1-KAM TÙR NÍGIN-ma dIŠKUR -šú ŠUB-ma 44

(r 25) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo of the course of a god" means that on the first day it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo and Adad will raise his voice; alternatively (it means that) a star with whose path the planets do not stand will be surrounded by the lunar halo.

r 2626

: šá-niš MUL ḫar-ra-nu šá dUDU.IDIM-MEŠ KI-šú GUB-MEŠ ina ŠÀ TÙR NÍGIN-ma 45

r 2727

* TÙR NÍGIN-ma dŠUL.PA.È.A ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : dSÀG.ME.GAR ina mùlALLA lu 46

(r 27) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo, and Šulpae stands inside it (i.e., the lunar halo)" means that Jupiter stands in the Crab or in the Old Man, in a lunar halo of the Moon; "women will acquire young men" means that Venus stands in the Lion or in the Furrow or in the Scorpion, in a halo of the Moon; "GURUŠ" (young man) (relates to) garāšu (to copulate) (which means) "to have sexual intercourse with."

r 2828

ina mùlŠU.GI ina TÙR 30 GUB-ma : MUNUS-MEŠ GURUŠ TUKU-MEŠ : dele-bat ina mùlUR.⸢A 47

r 2929

lu ina mùlAB.SÍN lu ina mùlGÍR.TAB ina TÙR 30 GUB-ma : GURUŠ : ga-ra-šú 48

r 3030

na-a-ku : * TÙR NÍGIN-ma 1(IKU)gána ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : AN šá-niš GU₄.U₄ ina mùlḪUN. 49

(r 30) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo, and the Field stands inside it (i.e., the lunar halo)" means that Mars or alternatively Mercury stands in the Hired One, in the halo of the Moon. ŠU.ZI means "wild"; ditto (i.e., ŠU.ZI) means "aggressive." NIM-MEŠ means "early" (plural); NIM means "early" (singular); "they will have illicit sexual intercourse" (uštahhû) stems from rehû in the sense of "to have sexual intercourse."

r 3131

ina TÙR 30 GUB-MEŠ-ma : ŠU.ZI : na-ad-ri : MIN<(ŠU.ZI)> : še-gu-ú

r 3232

NIM-MEŠ : ḫar-pa-a-tu₄ : NIM : ḫar-pu : -taḫ-ḫa-a : -šum re-ḫu-ú

r 3333

na-a-ku : * TÙR NÍGIN-ma šu-ku-du ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : šil-ta-ḫu PA.BIL.SAG 50

(r 33) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo, and the Arrow stands inside it (i.e., the lunar halo)" means that Pabilsag's Arrow stands in the halo of the Moon.

r 3434

ina TÙR 30 GUB-ma : * TÙR NÍGIN-ma dUDU.IDIM ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : AN ina mùlUR.A

(r 34) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo, and a planet stands inside it (i.e., the lunar halo)" means that Mars stands in the Lion or in the Bull of Heaven, in the halo of the Moon. SUG.ZI (in the sense of) GANA₂.ZI ("field"), (which) means "cultivated land."

r 3535

lu ina mùlGU₄.AN.NA ina TÙR 30 GUB-ma : SUG.ZI : -šum GÁNAna ZI : 51

r 3636

me-re-šú : * bi-ib-bu ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : AN šá-niš GU₄.U₄ ina mùlUR.A ina TÙR

(r 36) "If a planet stands inside it (i.e., the lunar halo)" means that Mars or alternatively Mercury stands in the Lion, in the halo of the Moon.

r 3737

30 GUB-ma : * mulÉLLAG KI.MIN mùlKU₆ ina ŠÀ-šú GUB : AN ina mùlGU.LA 52

(r 37) "If the Kidney or alternatively the Fish stands inside it (i.e., the lunar halo)" means that Mars stands in the Great One; alternatively (it means that Mars stands) in the Goat-Fish, in the halo of the Moon; alternatively (it has its) literal meaning.

r 3838

šá-niš ina mùlSUḪUR.MAŠ ina TÙR 30 GUB-ma : šá-niš ka-a-a-nu : * TÙR NÍGIN-ma 53

(r 38) "If it (i.e., the Moon) is surrounded by a lunar halo, and the ... stars stand at sunset" means that on the first day Jupiter and Mercury stand on top of the knot of the lunar halo at sunrise.

r 3939

MUL-MEŠ KUN ŠID d<UTU>.È.A GUB : U₄ 1-KAM dSÀG.ME.GAR u GU₄.U₄

r 4040

ina UGU ṭur-ri TÙR ana d<UTU>.È.A GUB-MEŠ


r 4141

up-puš₄ 54

(r 41) Properly executed.


(catchline)
r 4242

[*] 30 ina IGI.-šú TÙR NÍGIN-ma ka-bar u šu-par-ru-ru : U₄ 1-KAM TÙR NÍGIN-ma : KA [...]

(r 42) "If when the Moon appears it is surrounded by a lunar halo and it (i.e., the lunar halo) is thick and spread out" means that on the first day it is surrounded by a lunar halo; ... [...].

(colophon)
r 4343

[ṣa]-a- u šu-ut KA mál-su-tu ÉŠ.GÀR šá U₄ AN dEN.LÍL. šá ŠÀ * 30 ina itiDU₆ TÙR NÍGIN 55

(r 43) Lemmata and oral explanations (relating to) a 'reading' of the series of Enūma Anu Enlil (and referring to entries) from "If in Tašritu (Month VII) the Moon is surrounded by a lunar halo."

r 4444

IM mBAšá-a bu-kúr mdINANA-MU-KAM A mÉ.KUR-za-kir

(r 44) Tablet of Iqīšāya, son of Ištar-šumu-īriš, descendant of Ekur-zakir.

1As noted by Hunger (1995: 113), the basis for the comparison made in these two lines is that when Mercury is close to the Moon, the Moon appears darker, i.e. the proximity of Mercury to the moon has a similar effect to that of a lunar eclipse. The precise meaning of in this line is uncertain: the absence of a subordinate marker on iltakan suggests that it means "if," but it is also possible that it means "when" and that the subordinate marker was omitted for some reason.

2As noted by Hunger (1995: 113), the citation at the beginning of the line deviates from ACh Sîn 6 l. 7 in that GID₂.DA is replaced here (probably erroneously) by GUB.

3As noted by Hunger (1995: 113), when said of the Moon the word laptu, literally "affected," means "eclipsed," but such a translation does not make sense in this context. The discussion of whether an eclipse portends good or evil seems to have been triggered by the fact that the east is a significant factor for understanding both the omen cited in l. 3 and the meaning of the eclipse.

4As noted by Hunger (1995: 113), turri ūmi, (lit.) "turning of the day," refers to the appearance of a new moon in the evening of the 29th day (rather than in the evening of the 30th day). Thus, the explanation in this line can be summarized as follows: if the moon is visible on the 29th day of the month then it will still be visible on the 30th day of the month.

5The Kidney = the constellation Canopus. The Scorpion = Scorpio.

6Lisi (wr. dLI₉.SI₄) = Antares, a star located in the heart of the constellation Scorpio. As noted by Brown (2000: 59), the constellation Kidney is also equated with the planet Mercury in an astrological report to the Neo-Assyrian king (SAA 8: 325 r 5).

7The explanation in the second part of the line, namely that a red horn of the moon is due to the proximity of Mars, is doubtless due to Mars's red-brown color, which led to it being called "the red star" (see Reynolds 1998 for discussion of Mars's many titles).

8Šitaddaru = the constellation Orion. Rooster = Lepus. The remark at the end of the line, ina ŠÀ IZI iq-bi, "it is said with respect to fire," appears to explain the explanation, but precisely how it does so is unclear. The remark could, for example, reflect the fact that the "fire" (IZI) mentioned in the passage cited at the beginning of the line led the commentator to assume an eclipse in Orion because of the phonetic similarity between the name of the IZI-sign and the ZI-sign, which is a component of the writing of Orion, mùlSIPA.ZI.AN.NA. Alternatively, the other constellation mentioned in the explanation, Rooster, may be the connection: the Rooster may have been regarded as particularly bright in a manner that seemed similar to fire. The ancient association of Mars with fire (due to its red appearance) might suggest that apodosis cited in this line is, in the base text, the apodosis that followed the protasis cited and explained in l. 8. However, the fact that the two passages appear several lines appart in ACh Suppl 1, 9 means that the connection between the two passages is uncertain.

9The explanation provided for the moon's right horn being black, namely that "Saturn approaches it," is based on the association of Saturn with blackness (compare also the explanation of the protasis cited in o 25). For the rationale behind this association see Brown (2000: 69). The explanation provided for the moon's right horn being yellow-green, namely that "Venus approaches it," is due to the association of Venus with this color. As noted by Brown (2000: 66), Venus is called the "yellow-green star" in K 2346+ r 26'.

10As noted by Hunger (1995: 118), the equation of KIN with tertu is otherwise attested in the lexical text Izi H App. 49 (MSL 13 211), and the equation of DAG with šubtu is found in, for example, Erimhuš III 1.

11As noted by Hunger (1995: 114), the purpose of the equations "DAG (followed by) KAM means dakkannu" and "mūšabu means dakkannu" in ll. 11-12 is to explain why DAG can be equated with šubtu in l. 11. The sign DAG may have appeared in the apodosis of the omen cited in l. 10, as may KIN-MEŠ-šu.

12As noted by Hunger (1995: 114), the second and third explanations offered for the passage cited focus on possible causes of the Moon's unusual brightness, namely its relationship to the Sun or to Venus. The reading of LAL₂ in this context is uncertain; it appears in similar contexts in the "astronomical diaries" and Hunger (1995: 114) suggests interpreting it as šitqulu, "equinox." The Bull's Jaw = the constellation Hyades.

13Similarly to Saturn (see note ad o 10) and Mars, the planet Mercury can also turn stars, constellations and planets black or dark by its proximity: see Brown (2000: 91 n. 228).

14The purpose of the two otherwise unattested equations of SU is to explain the lunar phenomenon described in the protasis of the basis text, which is cited in the previous line, as meaning "of the Moon's horns are shining." The protasis's description of the Moon's horns as "bent" may have been problematic for the commentator because the Moon's horns are always curved, to a greater or lesser extent, although of course the same could be said of the Moon shining! The writing of kibsu as kib-su mitigates against interpreting it as the little attested word kipṣu, "curved shape," but the commentator obviously nevertheless thought that kibsu could be connected with the verbal root k-p-ṣ. The words kabāsu and nabāṭu are well attested in the lexical tradition, and so it is surprising that this commentary is the only place where the equation of these words with SU is found. Perhaps the commentator made the equation of SU with kibsu himself, on the basis that SU can be read KUŠ, which resembles the logogram for kibsu, KI.UŠ. The subsequent equations in this line seem to refer to the words ina-GUL-ma and IR.PAG in the omen's apodosis, which, unlike the protasis, is not cited in full. As noted by Hunger (1995: 114), the commentary interprets ina-GUL-ma as a mixed syllabo-lographic writing; the verb nagālu, "to glisten," seems incongruous in this context, which speaks against interpreting the word as wholly syllabically written. As also noted by Hunger (1995: 118), the equation of GUL with naqāru is elsewhere found in the lexical list Antagal III 199.

15As noted by Hunger (1995: 118), the equation of GUL with abātu is frequently attested elsewhere, for example in the lexical list Sb II 336. As also noted by Hunger (1995: 118), the logogram IR.PAG is also equated with kapādu in the lexical list Nabnitu IV 112. In the following line (l. 19), the logogram is treated as though it has an Akkadian root.

16The implication of !akk{la₃ DU₃}, if this is the correct reading of these two signs, is unclear in this context.

17As noted by Hunger (1995: 24), "large star" probably means "Jupiter" in this context because a meteor (also called "large star" in Akkadian) would probably not be said to "stand."

18For the association of Saturn with darkness see above ad o 10.

19Is this an instance of a second explanation that is for some reason not introduced by šanîš? For discussion of the meaning of the phrase ana ūmi elû, "to rise acronychally," see Hunger (1995: 115).

20As noted by Hunger (1995: 118), the equation of GEŠTU₂ with hassu is elsewhere attested in the lexical list Antagal C 44. From this equation on, the commentarial entry seems to be concerned with the apodosis of the omen, which is not quoted here in full.

21For discussion of Venus's radiance-inducing properties when it nears constellations, see Brown (2000: 92 n. 229).

22Elsewhere nidītu means "un-built up land," and so Hunger (1995: 110) translates it here as "a place empty of stars" (eine sternleere Stelle). The phrase LUGAL KUR ŠUB-ta TUŠ-eb probably comes from the omen's apodosis.

23As Hunger (1995: 115) notes, his emendation of a-dir is supported by ACh 2 Suppl 1a 3: 27.

24The basis for the explanation "on the first day Saturn [and] Mercury approach it" may be the (observational) association of darkness with the proximity of these two planets (Brown 2000: 68); dimness of a celestial body's light is usually a bad ominous sign, and for this reason the phrase U₄.DA-sugaltat could well have been interpreted as a way of saying that the Moon shone dimly. As Hunger (1995: 115) notes, E₃ IRI KUR₂ KUR-ad can also be translated as "an expeditionary force which exits a city will conquer the enemy."

25See Hunger (1995: 115) for secondary literature discussing La-tarak, a protective spirit in the form of a lion. It is unclear how the phrase "the lord La-tarak of the exits" should be understood in this context; the epithet "of the exits" is not otherwise attested with La-tarak, but it may be mentioned here because of a perceived connection with E₃ (āsītu), "expeditionary force," which appears in the apodosis cited in the previous line.

26"Star of Marduk" = Jupiter? (Brown 2000: 64-65).

27As noted by Hunger (1995: 116), it is possible that the last word in the line is broken away; the tentative restoration of qa-bi as the now lost word follows Hunger.

28The restoration of GUB at the end of the line follows Hunger (1995: 111). "Great One" (mùlGU.LA) = the constellatio Aquarius (the Akkadian reading is unknown). "A large star" = Jupiter or a meteor (Hunger 1995: 116; Brown 2000: 59).

29Hunger (1995: 116) supports the proposal, first made by Weidner (1941: 315 n. 136) and advanced by CAD S ad siphu B, that the word si-ip-ḫi may represent - or have been understood by the commentator as representing - a metathesis of sihpu, "extent, cover" (?), since the equation of ŠU₂ with sahāpu is attested in the lexical tradition.

30"Hired Man" = the constellation Aries.

31"Panther" = the constellation Cygnus. As noted by Hunger (1995: 116), the planet Mars is equated with the Panther in ŠL 4/2 no. 144 III.

32As noted by Hunger (1995: 116), the commentary's explanation of the phrase "the rain will be early by one double-hour" is based on the fact that harāpu I (u/u) means "to be early" whereas harāpu II (i/i) means "to cut off."

33As noted by Hunger (1995: 116), Saturn ("Regular One" in Akkadian) is also equated with the constellation Libra ("Scales" in Akkadian) elsewhere. For the rational behind the association of Saturn and Libra, see Brown (2000: 70).

34As noted by Hunger (1995: 116), the protasis "If it is surrounded by a lunar halo, and it is thick and spread out" is also the incipit of Tablet IX of Enūma Anu Enlil.

35The first explanation seems to be a long-winded means of equating šuparruru, "to spread out," with rabṣu, "recumbent."

36"Scorpion" = the constellation Scorpio.

37"Yoke" = the constellation Booetes. "Stars" = the constellation Pleiades. As noted by Hunger (1995: 116), both constellations in this protasis are treated separately in ACh 2 Suppl 1a, in IV 18 and IV 26.

38"Bull of Heaven" = the constellation Taurus.

39As noted by Hunger (1995: 116), the constellation "Yoke" is equated with Jupiter in ŠL 4/2 no. 379. As also noted by Hunger (1995: 116), the protasis at the end of the line appears in LBAT 1530 r 8, albeit with ed-du instead of ud-du-da.

40To date, this seems to be the only attested equation of SU₃ with pelû.

41"Field" = parts of the constellations Pegasus and Andromeda.

42As pointed out by S. Thavapalan (pers. comm.), the phrase "lunar halo of a rainbow" could refer to an arc-shaped lunar halo, i.e. a "circumscribed" lunar halo.

43In addition to a parallel with LBAT 1530 r 10, Hunger (1995: 117) notes that the protasis in this line may also be paralleled in ACh 2 Suppl 1a IV 3: see Hunger ad loc for further literature. The phenomenon of frogs falling from the sky also appears in an omen of Šumma ālu (CT 38 8: 39).

44"Adad will raise his voice," i.e. there will be thunder. As noted by CAD T 98b, the two texts ACh Supp 2 1 iv 11 and LBAT 1530 r 12 both offer parallels to this protasis. The ACh text contains tál-lak-ti DINGIR-MEŠ, "course of the gods" rather than "course of the god." As noted by Hunger (1995: 217), LBAT 1530 r 12 offers a similar explanation for the same omen, namely that "Adad will thunder during an eclipse."

45Hunger (1995: 217) considers NIGIN₂, "will be surrounded (by)," at the end of the line to be a mistake for GUB, "will stand (inside)."

46"Šulpae" (lit. "Lord of the Bright Rising") = the name of Jupiter at its heliacal rising in the east (Koch-Westenholz 1995: 120). "Crab" = the constellation Cancer.

47"Old Man" = the constellation Perseus, "Lion" = Leo.

48"Furrow" = the constellation Virgo, "Scorpion" = Scorpio.

49"Field" = parts of the constellations Pegasus and Andromeda. "Hired Man" = the constellation Aries.

50As noted by Hunger (1995: 117), the commentary erroneously derives uštahhû from rehû, presumably because of the change r > š before t in NB and LB (see GAG para. 35 c). "Pabilsag" = the constellation Sagittarius.

51"Bull of Heaven" = the constellation Taurus.

52"Kidney" = the constellation Canopus. "Fish" = the constellation Piscis Austrinis. "Great One" = the constellation Aquarius.

53"Goat-Fish" = the constellation Capricorn. For references to other examples of kayyānu with the meaning "literal meaning," see Hunger (1995: 117 ad loc).

54The precise meaning of uppuš in the context of colophons is unclear: see the brief discussion of the word by Frahm (2011: 395 n. 1595) with further literature.

55As noted by Frahm (2011: 52 with n. 225), this subscript type (ṣatu-type 4b) is attested on four other commentaries from Uruk, all of which are on tablets of Enūma Anu Enlil. The catchline is the incipit of EAE 9, which indicates that the present commentary on EAE 8 was part of a commentary-series on several tablets of EAE, including tablets 8 and 9.

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