CCP 3.1.20.B.a - Enūma Anu Enlil 20 B

Catalogue information
National Museum of Iraq
IM 75990
W 23300
UrukUruk, Ue XVIII/1
CDLI: 
P348755
Publication
Copy: 
SpTU 4 162
Editions: 

al-Rawi & George, 2006F. N. H. al-Rawi and George, A. R. , Tablets from the Sippar Library XIII: Enūma Anu Ellil XX, Iraq, vol. 68, pp. 23-57, 2006.: 23-57 esp. 55-56

Robson, 2009 (GKAB)

von Weiher, 1993E. von Weiher, Spätbabylonische Texte aus dem Planquadrat U 18. Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1993.: 103-105 no. 162

Commentary
DivinationAstrological. Enūma Anu Enlil

ṣâtu 4b

Base text: 
Enūma Anu Enlil 20
Commentary no: 
B
Duplicates
Tablet information
Babylonian
Fragment, upper half
Columns: 
1
Lines: 
obv 24, rev 23
Size: 
8,0 × 7,6 cm
Early Hellenistic (late 4th cent) (Uruk, Iqīšāya)
Colophon
Iqīšāya s. Ištar-šumu-ēriš d. Ekurzakir
Anu-abu-uṣur s. Anu-mukīn-apli d. Kurī
321/VI/3
Bibliography

al-Rawi & George, 2006F. N. H. al-Rawi and George, A. R. , Tablets from the Sippar Library XIII: Enūma Anu Ellil XX, Iraq, vol. 68, pp. 23-57, 2006.
[New edition, based on collations by F. Reynolds]
: 23-57 esp. 55-56

Clancier, 2009P. Clancier, Les bibliothèques en Babylonie dans le deuxième moitié du 1er millénaire av. J.-C. Ugarit-Verlag, 2009.: 60, 397

Fincke, 2017J. C. Fincke, Additions to already edited enūma any enlil (EAE) tablets, Part V: The lunar eclipse omens from tablet 20 published by Rochberg-Halton in AfO Beih. 22 with an excursus on šurinnu (ŠU.NIR), Kaskal, vol. 14, pp. 55-74, 2017.
[On line o 3-6: ṣalmu as “the black in the middle of the moon”]
: 70-71

Frahm, 2011E. Frahm, Babylonian and Assyrian Text Commentaries. Origins of Interpretation. Ugarit-Verlag, 2011.: 52, 131-32, 145, 293-94, 301, 334, 412

Gabbay, 2012U. Gabbay, Akkadian Commentaries from Ancient Mesopotamia and Their Relation to Early Hebrew Exegesis, Dead Sea Discoveries, vol. 19, pp. 267-312, 2012.
[On line o 8, r 17: pišru]
: 300 and fn. 108

Gabbay, 2016U. Gabbay, The Exegetical Terminology of Akkadian Commentaries. Brill, 2016.: 17 (16), 59 (162), 74 (5, 21), 153 (r 7), 201 (r 9, 18), 240 (2, 1–3), 257 (7, 15, r 18, 8–9), 285 (r 17), 74, 201 (13), 210–211 (10–14), 277, 285 (8)

von Weiher, 1993E. von Weiher, Spätbabylonische Texte aus dem Planquadrat U 18. Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1993.: 103-105 no. 162

Record
Robson, 01/2009 (ATF Transliteration)
Robson, 01/2009 (Lemmatization)
Jiménez, 05/2015 (Translation)
Jiménez, 05/2015 (Revision)
Jiménez, 05/2015 (Introduction)
Jiménez, 05/2015 (Annotation)
Frazer, 02/2016 (Introduction [correction])
Jiménez, 08/2016 (Commentary markup)
Fadhil & van Ess, 10/2017 (Museum number)
By Enrique Jiménez | Make a correction or suggestion
How to cite
Jiménez, E., 2015, “Commentary on Enūma Anu Enlil 20 (CCP 3.1.20.B.a),” Cuneiform Commentaries Project (E. Frahm, E. Jiménez, M. Frazer, and K. Wagensonner), 2013–2018; accessed October 19, 2018, at https://ccp.yale.edu/P348755. DOI: 10079/fttdzc5
© Cuneiform Commentaries Project (Citation Guidelines)
Introduction

This commentary is preserved on two identical tablets from Uruk. Both tablets contain a colophon that dates their production, and both contain a rubric that classifies the commentary as type ṣâtu 4b, i.e., as “Lemmata and oral explanations (relating to) a ‘reading’ (malsûtu) of the series Enūma Anu Enlil.” The longest manuscript, W 23300 (CCP 3.1.20.B.a), originally belonged to the library of the famous exorcist Iqīšāya, for whom it was copied by Anu-aba-uṣur, son of Anu-mukīn-apli, descendant of Kurī, on 20 September 321 BCE.

The second manuscript, VAT 7825 (CCP 3.1.20.B.b), was found in the course of uncontrolled excavations in Uruk, probably in the area of the Rēš Temple. In support of this findspot, its colophon states that its scribe (Tanittu-Anu, son of Anu-balāssu-iqbi, of the Ahuʾutu family) copied it “and deposited it in Uruk and the Rēš temple” (r 12'). The text was copied on 30 April 232 BCE. One may speculate that, if Iqīšāya's library was integrated into the Rēš Temple at some point in the 3rd century BCE,1 Tanittu-Anu may have copied his manuscript directly from W 23300. Both tablets are indeed almost identical.2

 

The commentary is mainly concerned with making specific what in the base text is ambiguous. These specifications are based on a number of different factors, only some of which can be explained. Astronomical interpretations are prominent: for instance, lines r 12’-13’ explain the omen from the base text “(If) Papsukkal rises and stands present with the sun” (= Enūma Anu Enlil XX §XII) as meaning that “the moon god in the constellation Sipazianna caught up with Saturn.”

On other instances the specification is not based only on astronomical factors. Thus, lines o 10-13 explain the line from the base text “The god (sc. the moon) in whose eclipsing the dawn watch begins and delays for ⅓ of a watch” (= Enūma Anu Enlil XX §I 8) first by paraphrasing it as “the eclipse took place during the dawn watch, and set while eclipsed.” Then it proceeds to justify this translation. Since the night was divided into three watches, “⅓ means one third of the night, (i.e.) the third watch”: the third watch is the dawn watch. The commentary then offers an alternative interpretation: “what it says, ⅓, can (also) mean that (when) one third of the cusps of the god (i.e., the eclipsed moon) remained to dawn, he (sc. the moon) set in obscurity.” In this alternative explanation, the fraction is said to refer to the shape of the moon when it set. This commentarial entry thus provides two plausible specific explanations for a rather ambiguous base text.

Although philology is of secondary interest to the author of this commentary, there are some attempts at elucidating philologically difficult expressions in the base text. For instance, the rare phrase mātu sakiltu, lit. “an imbecile land,” is said to mean “Elam” (o 23).

The following technical terms are used in this commentary: aššum (r 7’), ina libbi… iqbi (o 7), ina muḫḫi… qabi (o 2), and ša iqbû (o 13 and 18).

 

Many of the explanations of the present commentary, especially those on the reverse of the tablet, have been studied in detail by al-Rawi & George,3 a study to which the present edition is greatly indebted. Additionally, this edition has benefited from the electronic editions of the two manuscripts prepared by Eleanor Robson for the GKAB project, which were kindly made available by their editor.

The manuscript VAT 7825 was collated in the Vorderasiatisches Museum in June 2016. Several new readings on the badly damaged obverse could be obtained then.

Edition

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Commentary B on Enuma Anu Enlil 20

obverse
11* ina itiBÁRA U₄ 14-KAM AN.GE₆ GAR⸣-ma DINGIR ina KAN₅-šú Á imU₁₈.LU AN.TA KAN₅-ma

(1) "(If) an eclipse takes place on the 14th of Nisannu (I) and the god in its eclipsing becomes dark on the side south above (elānu) and clears on the side north below (šaplānu)" (= EAE XX §I 1), it is said on account of the upper part of the (moon) disk, (since) "beginning" means "top" (elānu); and KI.TA means "bottom."

22Á imSI. KI.TA iz-ku : ina UGU re- ši-kin qa-bi : taš-ri-tu₄ 1
33e-la-nu : KI.TA : šap-la-nu : ina šu-ri-in-ni-šú dele-bat ana ŠÀ 30 KU₄-ma

(3) "Through its 'emblem' Venus enters the moon (and) in the month of the watch Venus enters the moon" (= EAE XX §I 5), "emblem" means "horn," ditto (i.e. "emblem") can also mean the figure inside of the moon. Alternatively, (in) "(If) through its 'emblem' Venus enters the moon," "emblem" means "portents for an eclipse." (It means that) in an eclipse Venus stands in Aries opposite the moon, since the "lord" of its month is Aries. It is said in "The king of Akkad will die."

44ina ITI EN.NUN dele-bat ana ŠÀ 30 KU₄-ma : šu-ri-in-ni : qar-nu : MIN<(šu-ri-in-ni)> : 2
55ṣal-mu šá ŠÀ 30 : šá-niš ina šu-ri-in-ni-šú dele-bat ana ŠÀ KU₄ : šu-ri-in-ni :
66i-da-tu₄ ana AN.GE₆ : ina AN.GE₆ dele-bat ina mulₓ(AB₂).ḪUN. ana tar-ṣi 30 GUB-ma
77EN ITI-šú : mulₓ(AB₂).ḪUN. : ina ŠÀ LUGAL A.GA.ki UG₇ iq-bi : IM šá* 3

(7) "The wind which you consider" (= EAE XX passim) means the wind which blows towards the lands: therefrom you can pronounce an interpretation. You shall give an oracular response concerning the king of Akkad (cf. EAE XX §I 7). The month of Nisannu belongs to Aries; the tail of Aries (pertains) the king of Akkad.

88ina ŠU-MIN-ka tu-kal : IM šá* ana KUR.KUR il-la-ku-ma pi*-šìr* ana ŠÀ 4
99ta-qab-bi : .BAR ana LUGAL A.GA.ki ta-nam-din : itiBÁRA :
1010mulₓ(AB₂).ḪUN. KUN mulₓ(AB₂).ḪUN. : A.GA.ki : DINGIR šá ina KAN₅-šú

(10) "The god in whose eclipsing the dawn watch begins and delays for 1/3 of a watch" (= EAE XX §I 8) means that the eclipse took place during the dawn watch, and set while eclipsed. 1/3 means one third of the night, (i.e.) the third watch; alternatively, what it says (1/3-TA.ÀM) can mean that (when) one third of the cusps of the god (i.e., the eclipsed moon) remained to dawn, he set in obscurity.

1111EN.NUN.U₄.ZAL.LA SAR-ma 1/3-TA.ÀM EN.NUN uḫ-ḫi-ru : ina EN.NUN.U₄.ZAL.LA
1212AN.GE₆ GAR-ma KAN₅ ŠÚ-ma : 1/3-TA.ÀM : šal-šú šá mu?-šu* šá*-lul-tu₄ EN.NUN
1313šá-niš 1/3-TA.ÀM šá iq-bu-ú : šal-šú šá SI* DINGIR* ana ZÁLAG TAG₄ 5
1414ad⸣-ri ŠÚ-ma : * ina itiGAN U₄ 28-KAM SAG IGI.DU₈.A IGI-ma dele-bat ana ŠÀ 30

(14) "In Kislīmu (IX), on the 28th day when observing the last visibility (sc. of the eclipsed moon), Venus enters within him" (= EAE XX §I 8) means "in the day of the disappearance of the moon Venus enters within it." You will predict an eclipse of 100 <days>.

1515KU₄ : ina U₄..A dele-bat ana ŠÀ 30 KU₄-ma : 1 me <U₄-MEŠ> AN.GE₆ DUG₄.GA
1616[U₄]..A AN.GE₆ ú!-kal-lam-ka : ul-tu U₄. šá itiGAN

(16) "The day of the disappearance of the moon shall show you the eclipse" (= EAE XX §I 9) means that from the the day of the disappearance of the moon in Kislīmu (IX) you should predict the day of the eclipse in Nisannu (I). 100 days until the days of [...].

1717[ana?] U₄ AN.GE₆ šá itiBÁRA ta-qab-bi : 1 me U₄mi a-na U₄*-MEŠ*
1818[x]-de-e-ti : ki-ṣir šal-šú šá itiBÁRA šá Eú šá itiBÁRA 2*.KAM* šu*-u*

(18) What it says, "the third group (of stars) of Nisannu" (= EAE (?) unknown), refers to intercalary Nisannu.

1919EN.NUN.MÚRU.BA im-šil-ma a-di ZÁLAG DU dUTU NU IGI-šú : i-na mi-šil mu-šú

(19) "In the middle watch (the eclipse) is half, it goes on until daybreak and you cannot see the sun" (= EAE XX §I.2 4-5) means that the eclipse starts in the middle of the night and peters out before the beginning of the whiteness. "It goes on until daybreak and you cannot see the sun" (= EAE XX §I.2 4-5) means that up to the (full) light you cannot see the whiteness. Alternatively, "it goes on until daybreak and you cannot see the sun" means that before sunrise it (sc. the eclipsed moon) becomes bright, but it does not take a shape.

2020AN.GE₆ SAR-ma a-di la SAG pu-ú-ṣu ZÁLAG-ma : EN ZÁLAG DU dUTU 6
2121NU IGI-šú [:] a-di UGU nu-um-ri-šú pu-ú-ṣu NU IGI : šá-niš EN ZÁLAG DU 7
2222dUTU NU IGI-šú a-di la KUR dUTU ZÁLAG-ma NU : i-šab-biṭ : i-dak-ku*

(22) "He will beat" (cf. EAE XX §I.2 B 5) means "he will kill," since "to beat" means "to kill." "To slaughter" means the same.

2323[šá]-ba-ṭu : da-a-ku : šá-ga-šú : MIN<(da-a-ku)> : KUR sa-kil-tu₄ : KUR ELAM.MAki

(23) "A barbarous land" (= EAE XX §I.2 B 5) means Elam.

2424[x x x x x x] dan⸣-nu : LUGAL .TE GAL DABbat : LUGAL ELAM*.MA*ki* *.TE* : šá* 8

(24) [...] means "powerful." "The king will seize a great throne" (= EAE XX §I.2 B 6) means that the king of Elam will seize the throne.

2525[...]-⸢x⸣-ma

(25) ...

(rest of obverse missing)
reverse
(start of reverse missing)
1'1'x x x x x x [...]

(1') [...] (broken) DÚR (means) it makes it fall [...].

2'2'ḫe- DÚR : ú-ša-am-qa-at ta-ba-⸢x x [... qar-na-šú šá-ma-mi]

(2') ["His cusps] are jabbing [the sky"] (= EAE XX §VIII) (it means that the moon god) brings about a total eclipse among the Pleiades; the Pleiades mean [...]. "(if) it becomes eclipsed" means it changes shape.

3'3'nak-pa : AN.GE₆ TIL ina MULX(ÁB).MULX(ÁB) GAR-ma : MULX(ÁB).MULX(ÁB) x [x x x x x x x x] x 9
4'4'i-na-dir : i-šá-an-ni : za-ra-nu MÚRU : ḫar-ra-⸢nu šu*-ut* d*en*-líl* [:] za-⸢ra*⸣-nu <<x>> 10

(4') The "middle zarānu" (= EAE XX §IX) is the Path of the Enlil-Stars; zarānu means "band".

5'5': ṭur-ri : * ina itiAB U₄ 14-KAM AN.GE₆ GAR-ma SI-MEŠ-šú 1et la ik-bir 1et la iq-tin 11

(5') "(If) on 14th Ṭebētu (the moon god) brings about an eclipse and, as regards his cusps, the one does not grow too fat nor the other too thin" (= EAE XX §X) (this means) a half moon. "(If) an eclipse takes place in the Crab constellation" (= EAE XX §X) the "lord" of its month is the Goat-Fish constellation; the Goat-Fish constellation (pertains) Subartu and Gutium. irassib ("he will smite") means "he will kill" because rasābu means "to kill."

6'6'1/2 ḫab-rat : ina mulₓ(AB₂)NAGAR AN.GE₆ GAR-ma : EN ITI-šú : mulₓ(AB₂)SUḪUR.MÁŠ : mulₓ(AB₂)SUḪUR.MÁŠ : KUR SU.BIR₄ki
7'7'u gu-ti-um : i-ra-sib : i-da-ku : -šum ra-sa-bu : da-a-ku : ŠU.NIR 12

(7') "(If) he does not cover all of the 'emblem' and disappears" (= EAE XX §XI) (this means that) in a total eclipse it set in obscurity. "Bond" (= EAE XX §XI) means "bond of everything." "The god who in his eclipse became visible and disappeared" (= EAE XX §XI) means (the moon which) set while eclipsed. "The king to whom (Enlil) said 'Yes'" (= EAE XX §XI) means the king in whose time the portent happened.

8'8'ka-la-šú NU DUL-ma it-bal ina AN.GE₆ TIL ad-ri ŠÚ-ma : KÉŠ : ri-kis ka-la-mu 13
9'9'DINGIR šá ina KAN₅-šú IGI-ma it-bal : šá KAN₅ ŠÚú : LUGAL šá an-na-a iq-bu-šú : LUGAL šá ana
10'10'tar-ṣi-šú GISKIM il-li-ku : * ina itiŠE U₄ 14-KAM AN.GE₆ GAR-ma SI-MEŠ-šú ina še-e-ri NU <<:>> 14

(10') (If) on 14th Addaru (the moon god) [brings about] an eclipse and his cusps cannot be seen in the morning but can be seen when he sets" (= EAE XX §XII) (means) in a total eclipse in which (the moon god) lit up Regulus (and) set; the sign TA means "in." "(If) Papsukkal rises and stands present with the sun" (= EAE XX §XII) (it means) the moon god in the constellation Sipazianna caught up with Saturn. "(If the moon god in) eclipse completes the dawn watch" (= EAE XX §XII) (means) an eclipse that went on until the end of the dawn watch.

11'11'i-na-aṭ-ṭa-lu ina GAL-šú in-na-aṭ-ṭa-lu : ina AN.GE₆ TIL šá LUGAL?
12'12'ú-nam-mi-ru ŠÚú TA : i-na : dPAP.SUKKAL KUR-ma KI dUTU GUB d30 ina
13'13'mulₓ(AB₂)SIPA.ZI.AN ana GENNA KUR-ma : AN.GE₆ EN.NUN.U₄.ZAL.LE ú-gam-mir : AN.GE₆
14'14'šá a-di TIL EN.NUN.U₄.ZAL.LA GIN : * AN.GE₆ : ina U₄ 7-KAM U₄ 14-KAM U₄ 21-KAM 15

(14') "(If the moon god brings about) an eclipse on the seventh, fourteenth (or) twenty-first day" (= EAE XX §XIII) (it is said) with regard to his (first) sighting and termination. "Stars, watches, eclipse(s), he (sc. the moon) will show(!) you." (= EAE XX §XIII) "Star" (refers to) that which in the month under watch approached the moon god and passed by. "The culminating stars" (are) those that are put on top of the moon's eclipse. Therefrom you can pronounce an interpretation.

15'15': ana UGU IGI-šú u TIL : * MUL-ME EN.NUN-MEŠ AN.GE₆ ú-kal*-lu-mu*-ka MUL
16'16': šá ina ITI EN.NUN a-na d30 TEú u DABú MUL-MEŠ ziq-pi šá ina UGU
17'17'AN.GE₆ d30 GARan pi-šìr ana ŠÀ ta-qab-bi : * ni-i-ri : šá A.AB.BA

(17') "(If) the Yoke Star of the Sea is obscure, Ea is angry" (= EAE XX §XIV) means that there is an eclipse in Aquarius.

18'18'a-dir dé-a a-dir : AN.GE₆ ina mulₓ(AB₂)GU.LA GAR-ma ṣa-a- u šu-ut KA

(18') [Lemma]ta, oral explanations (relating to) a 'reading' of the series Enūma Anu Enlil (and referring to entries) from "(If) an eclipse takes place on the 14th of Nisannu (I) and the god in its eclipsing" (= EAE XX 1). Completed.

19'19'mál-su-ut ÉŠ.GÀR šá * U₄ AN dEN.LÍL. šá ŠÀ * ina itiBÁRA U₄ 14-KAM AN.GE₆ GAR-ma
20'20'DINGIR ina KAN₅-šú AL.TIL

1On šiknu, "appearance," said of eclipses, se CAD Š/2 437b.

2Collations by F. Reynolds apud al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 24 fn. 1. The translation and interpretation of o 4-6 follows al-Rawi & George ibidem. As explained there, the gist of the explanation is that šurinnu "refers esentially to the ominous parts of the moon in eclipse, both its cusps ("horns") and its face."

3The expression ina libbi ... iqbi is used to provide the title of the text from which the previous equation has been taken. In the present case, šar akkadê imât may represent the title of a section, perhaps EAE XX §I 7b.

4Collations by F. Reynolds apud al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 34 ad 4. The translation and interpretation of o 7-9 follows al-Rawi & George ibidem.

5On the expression "x remaining to dawn," see Neugebauer & Sachs JCS 21 Fs Goetze (1967) pp. 212-213. In astronomical diaries the expression usually specifies the amount of "fingers" (ubānu, written SI) remaining. von Weiher read šalšu šaḫab-rat⸣; the collation here follows that of F. Reynolds apud al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 55.

6On the expression adi namāri illik, see Rochberg AfO Beih 22 (1988) p. 83 and fn. 5.

7The last sign is copied by von Weiher as ZÁLAG DU, but transliterated by him as È. This transliteration is followed by al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 55. The signs need collation.

8F. Reynolds' collation apud al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 55 reads at the end of the line AŠ.TE : šá.

9The translation and interpretation follows al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 39.

10Collations by F. Reynolds apud al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 40.

11The translation and interpretation of r 5'-7' follows al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 42.

12The translation and interpretation of r 7'-10' follows al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 44.

13On the reading ina attalê gammarti adri(š) irbī-ma, see al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 44 fn. 9.

14The translation and interpretation of r 10'-14' follows al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 47.

15Collations by F. Reynolds apud al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 40. The translation and interpretation of r 14'-17' follows al-Rawi & George Iraq 68 (2006) p. 48.