CCP 6.1.29 - Aa V/4 (pirsu 29)

Catalogue information
National Museum of Iraq
IM 76993
W 22643
UrukUruk, Ue XVIII/1 Wohnhaus nö. ne. Sch I, II
SpTU 2 54

von Weiher, 1983E. von Weiher, Spätbabylonische Texte aus Uruk. Teil II. Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1983.: 209-211 no. 54


ṣâtu 7c

Base text: 
Aa V/4 (pirsu 29)
Tablet information
Complete tablet
60 (obv. 33, rev. 27)
12,3 × 8,0 cm
Early Hellenistic (late 4th cent) (Uruk, Iqīšāya)
Enlil-bēlšunu, āšipu ṣeḫru s. Enlil-napištī-uṣur, brewer of Enlil (?) d. Gimil-Sîn
(Nippur) (?)

Attinger, 2005P. Attinger, A propos de AK «faire» (II), Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, vol. 95, pp. 208-275, 2005.
[On line 32-34]
: 223 fn. 83

Civil, 1989M. Civil, The Statue of šulgi-ki-ur5-sag9-kalam-ma. Part One: The Inscription [Appendix 2. A 1176], in DUMU-É-DUB-BA-A. Studies in Honor of Åke W. Sjöberg, H. Behrens, Loding, D. , and Roth, T. , Eds. University Museum, 1989, pp. 49-64.
[On line 2-3]
: 55

Civil, 2013M. Civil, The Law Collection of Ur-Namma, in Cuneiform Royal Inscriptions and Related Texts in the Schøyen Collection, A. R. George, Ed. CDL Press, 2013, pp. 221-286.
[On line 37]
: 272b

Clancier, 2009P. Clancier, Les bibliothèques en Babylonie dans le deuxième moitié du 1er millénaire av. J.-C. Ugarit-Verlag, 2009.
[Descendants d'Ekur-zakir, Niveau II, associé a W 22462]
: 393

Farber, 1987W. Farber, Neues aus Uruk: Zur „Bibliothek des Iqīša” [Review of von Weiher SpTU 2], Welt des Orients, vol. 18, pp. 26-42, 1987.
: 36

Frahm, 2002E. Frahm, Zwischen Tradition und Neuerung: Babylonische Priestergelehrte im achämenidenzeitlichen Uruk, in Religion und Religionskontakte im Zeitalter der Achämeniden, R. G. Kratz, Ed. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2002, pp. 74-108.: 92

Frahm, 2011E. Frahm, Babylonian and Assyrian Text Commentaries. Origins of Interpretation. Ugarit-Verlag, 2011.: 29, 40, 54, 73-75, 100-01, 106-07, 247-48, 294, 304

Gabbay, 2014aU. Gabbay, Actual Sense and Scriptural Intention: Literal Meaning and Its Terminology in Akkadian and Hebrew Commentaries, in Encounters by the Rivers of Babylon: Scholarly Conversations between Jews, Iranians, and Babylonians, U. Gabbay and Secunda, S. , Eds. Mohr Siebeck, 2014, pp. 335-370.
[On line 43-46]
: 353

Gabbay, 2016U. Gabbay, The Exegetical Terminology of Akkadian Commentaries. Brill, 2016.: 24 (52), 25 (41, 45), 74 (3, 7, 16, 19, 20, 22, 27, 28), 150 (2), 151 (35–36), 152 (21), 154 (8), 155 (34, 46), 156 (12–13), 226 (8–10), 152, 156 (50–53), 155–156 (38–40)

Gabbay & Jiménez, forthcomingU. Gabbay and Jiménez, E. , From Nippur to Uruk: The Tablets of the Gimil-Sîn Family.
[On the colophon]

Geller, 2010bM. J. Geller, Ancient Babylonian Medicine: Theory and Practice. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
[On line 194: Read the colophon as m.den-lil-zi-tim-šeš kulla.lumₓ(mul) a mšu.d30]
: 194

Genty, 2010aT. Genty, Les commentaires dans les textes cunéiformes assyro-babyloniens. MA thesis, 2010.
: 248

Mayer, 2005W. R. Mayer, Das Gebet des Eingeweideschauers an Ninurta, Orientalia Nova Series, vol. 74, pp. 51-56, 2005.
[On line 11]
: 55 ad 2

Oelsner, 2001aJ. Oelsner, Uruk im Planquadrat U 18 [Review of von Weiher SpTU 5], Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, vol. 96, pp. 478-488, 2001.
: 482

Steinkeller, 2001P. Steinkeller, New Light on the Hydrology and Topography of Southern Babylonia in the Third Millennium, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, vol. 91, pp. 22-84, 2001.
[On line 2-3]
: 43-44 fn. 91

von Soden, 1977bW. von Soden, Aramäische Worter in neuassyrischen und neu- und spätbabylonischen Texten. Ein Vorbericht. III, Orientalia Nova Series, vol. 46/47, pp. 183-197, 1977.
[On line 50, 52: tilgūtu]
: 196

von Weiher, 1983E. von Weiher, Spätbabylonische Texte aus Uruk. Teil II. Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1983.: 209-211 no. 54

Frahm, 08/2011 (Introduction [for GMTR 5])
Veldhuis, 05/2013 (Edition [for DCCLT])
Jiménez, 01/2015 (Introduction (adaptation))
Fadhil & van Ess, 10/2017 (Museum number)
By Niek Veldhuis | Make a correction or suggestion
How to cite
Veldhuis, N., 2013, “Commentary on Aa V/4 (pirsu 29) (CCP 6.1.29),” Cuneiform Commentaries Project (E. Frahm, E. Jiménez, M. Frazer, and K. Wagensonner), 2013–2024; accessed May 18, 2024, at DOI: 10079/q83bkgj
© Cuneiform Commentaries Project (Citation Guidelines)

This completely preserved commentary of sixty lines was found in area U XVIII 1 in Uruk. It has a rather complex subscript that begins with a catchline, then identifies as its base text the fourth section (pirsu) of diš ḫu-um ḫum (the incipit of Aa 26 = Ea 5/1) and the 30th section (pirsu) of Aa,1 and finally specifies that the tablet is a ṣâtu 7c commentary on diš e-nu en (the incipit of Aa “29”).2 The tablet presents (pseudo-)archaic forms of the cuneiform signs commented on, which is in line with the way some manuscripts of Aa itself render the signs.3 The commentary mentions Emesal forms (line 1) and provides “etymographical” examinations of certain signs. In line 41, the commentator confesses that he was unable to “read” something (ul šasi), and in line 52, he states that he had not “heard” of the meaning of a specific word (ul ašme). The colophon identifies the tablet as an im-gíd-da of Enlil-bēlšunu, “junior-exorcist” and son of Enlil-napištī-uṣur, a brewer of Enlil(?) and descendant of the Gimil-Sîn family.4 The preset commentary was discovered among tablets belonging to the library of the exorcist Iqīšāya, whose scribal activities can be dated to the early Hellenistic period. However, the names and functions of the individuals mentioned in the colophon indicate that they hailed from a family from Nippur, from where other commentaries found their way to Uruk as well.

As is often the case in Aa commentaries, this text uses etymological explanations to account for the Akkadian translations the lexical series Aa provided for Sumerian words. For instance, lines 50-53 of the present text read: diš ma-aḫ maḫ ... rag-ga-am-ma-nu : ra-ga-mu / aš-šum ma : qa-bu-u : : ma-du-tú “(the sign) maḫ, (when read) maḫ, ... (means) ‘prophet,’ (which is derived from?) ‘to shout,’ because ma (means) ‘to speak’ (and) aḫ (means) ‘many.’” We learn from this commentarial analysis that the Babylonians regarded prophets − if this is what raggammānu means here5 − as men who talked a lot.

This last example contains a case of etymography, in which the commentary isolates elements of complex logograms and then analyzes them individually. Another rather simple example of this method occurs in lines 16-17: diš lu-kur lukur(munus-me) na-[d]i-tu ... / munus : sin-niš-tu₄ : me : par-ṣi “(the sign) lukur(munus-me), (when pronounced) lukur, (means) nadītu-priestess ..., (for) munus (means) ‘woman’ (and) me (means) ‘cultic ordinance.’” Here, the first and the second component of the lukur sign are each translated on their own in an attempt to show that the nadītu-priestess is a woman in charge of cultic ordinances.6

This commentary contains an unusually high number of quotations. For instance, lines 9-10 quote a line which is explicitely said to be found in the corpus of cultic laments (kalûtu).7 In an attempt to provide a context reference for the lexical equation between me-er-me-ri and meḫû “storm,” the commentary offers the following citation (lines 9-10):

me-er-me-er i zi-gu-ú i-bí-bi saḫar-ra bí-in-dul / me-ḫu-u it-ba-am-ma e-per pa-ni-šú ik-tùm ina! lú!šú-tú qa-bi8

me-er-me-ri zi-gu-ú i-bí-bi saḫar-ra bí-in-dul − a storm arose and covered his face with dust” − (This) is said in the kalûtu-corpus.

The line quoted here is also attested in obv. 12’ of A 3513, a Late Babylonian catalogue of Balag compositions from the collection of the Oriental Institute in Chicago recently published by Gabbay;9 it is probably taken from the Balag am-e bára an-na-ra. The Akkadian translation is furthermore known from BRM 4, 6: 9,10 a ritual against lunar eclipses from Late Babylonian Uruk. The present commentary was found in Uruk as well, but seems to have been written by a Nippur scribe.

Similarly, lines 23-24 of the this commentary offer a bilingual quotation from the so-called Examenstext A:11 múrub um-me-a-ke₄-e-ne kisal é-dub-ba-a / ina pu-ḫur «ina» um-man-nu ki-sal é ṭup-pi, “In the assembly of the scholars, in the courtyard of the tablet house.” That the commentator, in his desire to provide a context reference for the equation between múrub and puḫru, chose this quotation in particular is probably to some degree due to the fact that Examenstext A describes quite well the scholarly milieu in which cuneiform hermeneutics were supposed to be practiced.

The edition offered below was produced for the DCCLT project by Niek Veldhuis, who kindly consented to its reproduction here.


[Adapted from E. Frahm, Babylonian and Assyrian Text Commentaries. Origins of Interpretation. Ugarit-Verlag, 2011. Pp. 73-74, 100-101, 106-107, and 247]

  • 1. The tablet count is thus by one number higher than Civil’s reconstruction of Aa in MSL 14 would have us expect.
  • 2. A structurally similar subscript can be found in NBC 7832 (CCP 6.1.41), a commentary on Aa 41 from Nippur.
  • 3. Note that a Middle Assyrian colophon characterizes the series as a-a-meš-tu libir-ra-meš-tu “ancient ‘a-a’s (signs)” (see Civil, 1979M. Civil, Green, M. W. , and Lambert, W. G. , Ea A = nâqu, Aa A = nâqu, with their Forerunners and Related Texts. Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1979.: 148).
  • 4. See W. Farber, Neues aus Uruk: Zur „Bibliothek des Iqīša” [Review of von Weiher SpTU 2], Welt des Orients, vol. 18, pp. 26-42, 1987. P. 36.
  • 5. CAD R, 405b interprets rag-ga-am-ma-nu as an unusual writing of the word rugummû “legal claim,” but it seems more likely to connect it with raggimu “prophet,” since maḫ recalls the word maḫḫû, another Akkadian prophetic title.
  • 6. In line 18, after identifying lukur with some other terms for elderly females, the commentator, analyzing the title phonetically, states: lú : a-me-lu : kúr : na-ka-ru “lú (means) ‘man,’ kúr (means) ‘to be inimical.’” Perhaps, the idea behind this remark is that the lukur-woman, because of her strong affiliation with cultic taboos and female mysteries, was a person that dangerously challenged male prerogatives.
  • 7. The passage has to be added to the quotations identified by U. Gabbay, Emesal passages cited in commentaries, N.A.B.U. Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires, vol. 2006/81, 2006.
  • 8. The last signs are misread in von Weiher’s edition as “lugal šú-ut qa-bi.”
  • 9. U. Gabbay, A Neo-Babylonian Catalogue of Balaĝ Tablets in the Oriental Institute of Chicago, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, 2007.
  • 10. me-ḫu-ú it-ba-am i-pe-er pa-ni-šú!? ik-tu-mu.
  • 11. Å. W. Sjöberg, Der Examenstext A, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, vol. 64, pp. 137-176, 1975. P. 140 ll. 2-3

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(Base textCommentaryQuotations from other texts)


SpTU 2, 054

o 1o 1

[[en> ]] 

* e


e-bi en-tum : be-el-tum

EN, read /e/, means (in Emesal:) princess; (in Akkadian:) priestess: lady

o 22

[[urunₓ(EN)> ]] 

* u₂-rum


ta-ne₂-ḫi ša₂ a-gi-i -šum a-gi-i ša₂ ID₂

EN, read /urun/ means "moaning" said of a flood, as in the flood of the river

o 33

šap-ṣu : dan-nu : na-ak-lu : ša₂-qu-u ša₂-niš dan-nu

fierce: strong: clever: high; alternatively: strong

o 44

[[eškiri₂> ]] 

* -gar₃


ṣer-re-tum : ap-pat

EN×GAN₂t, read /ešgar/ means nose rope: bridle

o 55

[[enkar> ]] 

* ak-ra


u₂-ri-in-nu : i-bi-ḫu1

EN×GAN₂t, read /akra/ means standard: rope

o 66

[[urbigu₂> ]] 

* ur-bi-gu


ṣe-e!-lu : ṣal-tum : šu-ku-lu : a-ka-lu2

EN%EN, read /urbigu/ means to fight: combat: to feed; to eat.

o 77

[[akarₓ(EN%EN)> ]] 

* a-kar₂


ap-luḫ-tu : pu-luḫ-tu ša₂-niš ṣal-tum

EN%EN, read /akar/ means armor: fear; alternatively: combat

o 88

[[mermer> ]] 

* me-er-me-ri


dIŠKUR -šum mir : še-e-pi ša₂-niš me-er-me-ri : me-ḫu-u

EN%EN, read /mermeri/ is the (storm) god Adad, as in (Sumerian) mir (storm): (which in Emesal means) foot; alternatively: (Sumerian) mermeri = storm

o 99

me-er-me-ri zi gu-u₂ i-bi₂-bi saḫar-ra bi₂-in-dul

(Sumerian) the life-eating storm covered his face with dust

o 1010

me-ḫu-u it-ba-am-ma e-per pa-ni-šu₂ ik-tum₃ ina lu₂ŠU₂-tu₂ qa-bi3

the storm arose and covered his face in dust - it says in the lamentation texts.

o 1111

[[ḫamunₓ(EN%EN)> ]] 

* ḫa-mun


mit-ḫur-tum : ṣal-tum : a-šam-šu-tum4

EN%EN, read /hamun/ means convergence : combat : dust storm

o 1212

[[sal> ]] 

* sa-a-al


uṣ-ṣu₂-u : uṣ-ṣu₂-u : ra-pa-šu₂ : -šu-u : ra-ka-su5

SAL, read /sal/ means to spread out: to spread out: to expand: to confuse: to bind (rakāsu)

o 1313

-šum sa : rik-si : al : šu-u₂ : ša₂-da-lu : ra-pa-šu₂6

as in sa: sinew (riksu); al: he; to become wide: to expand

o 1414

a-bur-riš : ra-pa-šu₂ : -šu-ru : muš-šu-ru

(in Sumerian u₂-sal) it means "in green pasture": to expand: to release: released

o 1515

[[min₂> ]] 

* me-in


ki-i-nu : ku-un-nu-ʾu : nu-ʾu-u₂-du

SAL read /min/ (in Emesal) means true; (in the Sumerian expression mi₂ dug₄): to care for: to praise

o 1616

[[lukur> ]] 

* lu-kur


na-di-tu al-mat-tu₂ ša₂-niš sin-niš-tum x-tum

SAL.ME, read /lukur/ means (celibate) priestess: widow; alternatively: ... woman.

o 1717

munus : sin-niš-tum : me : par-ṣi : šu-gi-tum : ši-ib-tum

munus (SAL): woman me: cultic ordinance; šugītu woman; old woman

o 1818

lu₂ : a-me-lu kur₂ : na-ka-ru

lu₂: man kur₂: to be hostile

o 1919

ša₂-niš x-x-x x-x-x šal-šiš : šu-gi-tum : al-mat-tu₂

alternatively: ...; thirdly: šugītu woman: widow

o 2020

[[nin> ]] 

* ni-in


ša₂ dnin ša₂ MIN : an-tum ša₂-niš dDAM.KI.AN.NA

SAL.TUG₂, read /nin/, as in (god names such as) Nin of ditto: Antu; alternatively: Damkiana

o 2121

[[egir₃> ]] 

* e-gi


ru-ba-a-tum : be-el-tu₂ -šum ru-bu-u₂-tum

SAL.TUG₂, read egi: princess: lady, as in queen

o 2222

[[murub₂> ]] 

* mu-ru-ub₂


pi-in-gu : pi-il?-šu₂ : bi-iṣ-ṣur ša₂-niš murub₂ : pi-in-gu-tu

SAL.LAGAR, read /murub/ means knob (pingu): hole: female pudenda; alternatively: murub: pingūtu

o 2323

murub₂ um-me-a-ke₄-e-ne kisal e₂-dub-ba-a

between the experts in the courtyard of the scribal school

o 2424

ina pu-ḫur-ru₃ um-man-nu ki-sal E₂ ṭup-pi

in the meeting of the scholars in the courtyard of the tablet house

o 2525

bur-ti a-ḫi : su-ḫa-tum

(Sumerian murub₂ also equals) chest: armpit

o 2626

[[usuḫ> ]] 

* u₂-ma-aḫ


e-nu-um : šar-ri : u₂-ma-aḫ ru-bu-u₂ : be-lu : ma-aḫ ra-bu!-u7

SAL.LAGAR, read /umah/ (error for usuh) means en-priest: king: umah: prince: lord: great (mah): big

o 2727

[[garinₓ(SAL.ḪUB)> ]] 

* ga-rin


ku-tu-u₂ : mut-ta-bil-tum? [...]-tum ša₂-niš ma?-aq?-qar?8

SAL.LAGAR, read /garin/(?) means jug: furnishings ... alternatively: chisel(?)

o 2828

[[geme₂> ]] 

* ge-me


am-tu gi : sin-niš-tu₂ : geme₂ ša₂-niš munus : sin-niš-tu₂

SAL.KUR, read /geme/ means slave girl; (Emesal) gi: woman: geme₂ (slave girl); alternatively munus: woman

o 2929

kur : qu-ul-lu-lu : ki-na-at?-tu : am-tu

kur (foreign land): despised; servant: slave girl

o 3030

[[ḫaš₄> ]] 

* ḫa-


il-ṣu : ul-ṣu : ri-ša₂-a-tum9

ZUM, read /haš/ means loins (ilṣu): (ilṣu is also) pleasure : jubilations

o 3131

ša₂-sur-ru : bi-iṣ-ṣu-ru

womb: female pudenda

o 3232

[[rig₂> ]] 

* ri-ig


ša₂-as-su-ru : bi-iṣ-ṣur x-x ar?-ra?-[...]10

ZUM, read /rig/ means womb: female pudenda

o 3333

DI? : sin-niš-tu₂ : gi : x-x-x ša₂ x-x-x-x

DI(?): woman; (Emesal) gi (young woman): ... of ...

r 1r 1

[[rig₂> ]] 

* ri-im


ma-ša₂-du : ḫa-la-ṣu ša₂ SAG.DU -šum ga-rig₂ : mul-ṭu11

ZUM, read /rim/ means to comb: to comb said of the head; as in garig: comb

r 22

[[zum> ]] 

* zu-um


ma-sa-su : na-sa-su : ma-ra-šu₂ : ḫa-ra-šu₂12

ZUM, read /zum/ means to lament: to lament: to be dirty (in mourning garb): to be in labor

r 33

-šum še-e-lu ša₂ kak-ku13

as in to sharpen, (said) of a weapon

r 44

[[zum> ]] 

* ṣu-um


ma-ra--u : ma-ra-ḫu14

ZUM, when read /ṣum/ means to fatten(?): to fatten(?)

r 55

[[kušumₓ(ZUM)> ]] 

* ku-šu-um


mar-ru : lap-nu : nun ḫap-pu : ḫab-šu-u : KU₆ ḫab-bi-lu

ZUM when read /kušum/ means bitter: strong: stinking fish: ...: fish criminal

r 66

nun : nu-u₂-nu : ḫab : bi-i-šu₂ : me-ku-u₂ : pu-ra-du

fish: fish (same word written differently): hab: smelling badly: a bitter plant (mekû or mekkû = a type of tool, suhur in Sumerian): a large carp

r 77

-šum suḫurku₆ : pu-ra-du : suḫurku₆ : me-ku-u₂ : gur-ru-du : GAR₃ BE-ta-nu

as in (Sumerian fish name) suhur: large carp: suhur: a tool: bald: locks (hairstyle typical for slaves) ...

r 88

ṣa-ar-ḫu ul ša₂-si

hot - (rest of the line) was not read

r 99

[[erinₓ(ZUM)> ]] 

* e-rin


šam-rum : ša₂-am-ri : ez-zu

furious: furious (other writing of the same word): angry

r 1010

[[gu-<(ul)>> ]] 

* gu-ul


šur-bu-u₂ : ra-bu-u₂ : ga-pa-šu : da-na-nu

GU, when used in gu-ul means to make great: to be great: to swell: to be strong.

r 1111

[[saḫ₄> ]] 

* sa-aḫ


bu-ul-lu-u ul ša₂-si

GU&GUR read /suh/ means to exterminate - (rest of the line) was not read

r 1212

[[suḫ₃> ]] 

* su-uḫ


ra-qa-du -šum ŋeššu₂-a suḫ₃-saḫ₄ : lit-tu₂ ri-iq-du15

GU&GU, read /suh/ means to dance, as in šuʾa suhsah: a stool used in dancing

r 1313

qu-u ed-qu-tum : ṭur-ri rak-su-tu

tied on threads: bound rope

r 1414

qu-u : ṭur-ri : e-de-qu : ra-ka-su

thread: rope: to tie on: to bind

r 1515

qu-u e-ši-tum : qu-u : ṭur-ri : e-šu-u : ra-ka-su

confused threads: thread: string: to confuse: to tie

r 1616

[[maḫ> ]] 

* ma-aḫ


tub₂-ku -šum ta-ba-ku : ti-il-gu-u-tum16

heap, as in to pour out: hugeness

r 1717

ti-li-ma-tum : ti-ri-in-du ša₂ ši-kar

drinking vessel: a beer container

r 1818

tu-ul-lu-gu ul aš₂-me : rag-ga-am-ma-nu : ra-ga-mu17

huge - I have not heard (of) it. Oracle priest: to shout.

r 1919

-šum ma : qa-bu-u : aḫ : ma-du-tu₂ : ti-iz-qa-rum : ra-bu-u

as in ma: to speak; ah: many; exalted; big

r 2020

[[šutur> ]] 

* šu-tur


tu-u₂-zu : tu-un-šu : ga-ad-ma-ḫu : na-al-ba-šu₂

MAH, read šutur means ceremonial garment: drapes: linen garment: cloak

r 2121

* zi-i ZI ki-i-ni 4u₂ per-su * ḫu-um LUM ḫa-ma-šum

(next section is) * zi-i ZI kīni (reliable); fourth section of (the sub-series) * hu-um HUM hamāšu (to be paralyzed).

r 2222

30u₂ per-su * a A na-a-qu BIR-MEŠ NU AL.TIL18

thirtieth section of (the main series) * a A nâqu (to wail) ...; not finished.

r 2323

ṣa-a-tu₂ šu-ut KA u maš-a-a-al-tu ša₂ KA um-man-nu

commentary from oral tradition and questioning of the mouth of the scholar

r 2424

ša₂ ŠA₃ * e-nu EN be-lu imGID₂.DA mdEN.LIL₂-EN-šu₂-nu

with respect to the tablet e-nu EN bēlu (lord). Oblong tablet of Enlil-belšunu

r 2525

MAŠ.MAŠ TUR A ša₂ mdEN.LIL₂-ZIti₃-ŠEŠ lu₂KUL.LA dil₃-il₃ A dŠU-d30

junior incantation priest, son of Enlil-napišti-uṣur the brewer of Enlil, descendant of Gimil-Sin.

1the translation "rope" belongs to the reading eškiri in the previous line.

2The Sumerian word urbigu (also written ur-bi gu₇) contains the word for to eat or to feed (gu₇).

3for this reading see Frahm GMTR ## 2010, 100; the Akkadian has reinterpreted the strange phrase "life eating" into a form of the verb zig₃ = to rise. both the Sumerian and the Akkadian are quoted in the Eclipse ritual in Linsen/Brown RA 97 (//BRM 4 6)

4The entry mixes Akkadian equivalencies for hamunₓ = mithurtu (convergence, etc.) and dalhamun₂ = ašamšūtu (dust storm). The writing EN%EN for hamunₓ is not otherwise known, but also not unexpected.

5The repetition of uṣṣû (to spread out) is unexplained. The insertion of uššû (to confuse) may be based on phonemic association with uṣṣû.

6al = šū appears in NBGT I, 14 and 122

7the gloss is an error for u₂-su-uh, but the commentary relates to mah = rubû

8The sign represents an attempt to write SAL.HUB₂ and needs collation. The item is known from Sb 1, 344: qa-rim SAL.HUB₂ ku-tu-u₂ (CUSAS 12 1.2.1).

9The line uses the homonymy between ilṣu = loins and ilṣu = joy ilṣu loins appears only lexical (Malku-Šarru and OB Ugumu). See Couto-Ferreira 2009 241-242.

10The Sumerian word is not otherwise known in this meaning.

11The Sumerian verb rimₓ/rig₂ is not otherwise known; it is reconstructed here from the well-known word ga-rig₂ = comb.

12The sign ZUM (reverse 2-9) is differentiated from haš₄/rig₂ in the preceding lines.

13The relation with the ZUM entry is unclear.

14Interpretation very uncertain.

15This is a quote from Ura 4, 137. The item also appears in the Syrian Emar texts (Msk 731030 and Msk 74163b and in the OB Tell Harmal text IM 051144)

16For tilgūtu (and tullugu in 18) see CUSAS 12, 164.

17For raggamānu as a form of raggimu (oracle priest) see Frahm 2011, Commentaries 73.

18for BIR-MEŠ see Civil, MSL 14, 147f.