CCP 3.1.41 - Enūma Anu Enlil 41-43 (?)

Catalogue information
British Museum
NinevehNineveh (Kuyunjik)
AAT 27
ACh Adad 7 and 30
JANEH 5 p. 111

Gehlken, 2008E. Gehlken, Die Adad-Tafeln der Omenserie Enuma Anu Enlil. Teil 2. Die ersten beiden Donnertafeln EAE 42 und 43, Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie, vol. 1, pp. 256-314, 2008.: 285, 294 [partial]

DivinationAstrological. Enūma Anu Enlil

mukallimtu 2a

Base text: 
Enūma Anu Enlil 41-43 (?)
Tablet information
obv. 24, rev. 22
8,89 × 7,62 cm
7th cent (Assurbanipal libraries and other Assyrian cities)

AHw 1377b[On line 17': s.v. ṭābtu]

Frahm, 2011E. Frahm, Babylonian and Assyrian Text Commentaries. Origins of Interpretation. Ugarit-Verlag, 2011.: 32, 43, 133, 147

Gabbay, 2016U. Gabbay, The Exegetical Terminology of Akkadian Commentaries. Brill, 2016.: 119 (r 8, 23′), 119, 247 (24′)

Gehlken, 2005E. Gehlken, Die Adad-Tafeln der Omenserie Enūma Anu Enlil. Teil 1: Einführung, Baghdader Mitteilungen, vol. 36, pp. 235-273, 2005.
[Subscript and catchline]
: 264, 266-267

Gehlken, 2008E. Gehlken, Die Adad-Tafeln der Omenserie Enuma Anu Enlil. Teil 2. Die ersten beiden Donnertafeln EAE 42 und 43, Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie, vol. 1, pp. 256-314, 2008.
: 285, 294

Reiner, 1998aE. Reiner, Celestial Omen Tablets and Fragments in the British Museum, in tikip santakki mala bašmu.. Festschrift für Rykle Borger zu seinem 65. Geburtstag am 24. Mai 1994, S. M. Maul, Ed. Styx, 1998, pp. 215-302.: 287

Weidner, 1968E. F. Weidner, Die astrologische Serie Enûma Anu Enlil, Archiv für Orientforschung, vol. 22, pp. 65-75, 1968.
: 71-72

Jiménez, 04/2014 (ATF Transliteration)
Jiménez, 04/2014 (Translation)
Jiménez, 04/2014 (Introduction)
Jiménez, 04/2014 (Lemmatization)
Jiménez, 07/2014 (Collation)
Gabbay, 03/2015 (Reading suggestions (ll 24' and 29'))
Jiménez, 08/2016 (Commentary markup)
By Enrique Jiménez | Make a correction or suggestion
How to cite
Jiménez, E., 2014, “Commentary on Enūma Anu Enlil 41-43 (?) (CCP 3.1.41),” Cuneiform Commentaries Project (E. Frahm, E. Jiménez, M. Frazer, and K. Wagensonner), 2013–2024; accessed July 25, 2024, at DOI: 10079/r4xgxrz
© Cuneiform Commentaries Project (Citation Guidelines)

The one-column tablet 81-2-4,206 preserves commentaries on three tablets of the meteorological part of Enūma Anu Enlil. It is difficult to ascertain the original size of the tablet, but it probably contained commentaries on more EAE tablets.

In its present state, it is divided into three sections, each one preserving comments on a few omens of each tablet. At the end of each section there is a rubric that classifies the commentary as mukallimtu and gives the incipit of the tablet that has been commented upon (EAE 41, 42, and [43]). Unfortunately, very little is known of the base texts of both EAE 41 and 43, and it is consequently difficult to understand the commentary and to distinguish between the base text and commentary.

The commentary focuses mostly on philological matters. For instance, lines 16'-19' clarify the uncommon term nišḫu, "diarrhoea," by explaining the meaning of the individual components of the equivalent Sumerian word. One of the explanations (12'-15') tries to delimit the chronological validity of an omen in a manner reminiscent of the techniques used by diviners in the astrological reports.

While most commentary lines are indented, some of them also use Glossenkeile.


The tablet was collated in July 2014.


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AAT pl. 27 (1881-02-04, 206)[via ccpo]

(beginning tablet missing)
o 1'1'

* DUNGU [x x x x x] IGI? [x x x x]

(1') "If a cloud [...]." (= EAE 41 (?)) [...]

o 2'2'

      ka-[x x x x x x x x x x]

o 3'3'

* DUNGU [x x x x x x x x x x]

(3') "If a cloud [...], rains [...]" (= EAE 41 (?)) [...] In the month of Addaru (XII) (?) [...]

o 4'4'

      ŠÈG-MEŠ [x x x x]-ti [x x x]

o 5'5'

      ina itiŠE? [x x x] x [x x x]

o 6'6'

* DUNGU KIMIN? [x x x] ana tu₁₅U₁₈.LU ana tu₁₅SI.[ x x (x)]

(6') "If a cloud ditto [and ...] to the south and to the north [...]" (= EAE 41 (?)) (means) that the cloud ... and stands.

o 7'7'

      DUNGU ú-[(x)]-x-bal-ma DUaz-ma

o 8'8'

* DUNGU SIG₇ u GE₆ šu-ta-ḫa-a TU₁₅ ZIa

(8') "If a yellow and a black cloud are paired, the wind will come" (= EAE 41 (?)), "paired" means "at the same time."

o 9'9'

      šu-ta-ḫu-ú : mál-ma-liš

o 10'10'

mu-kal-lim-ti * U₄ AN dEN.LÍL šu-ut KA šá KA UM.ME.A

(10') Mukallimtu-commentary on Enūma Anu Enlil, with oral explanations, following the sayings of a scholar, (referring to entries) from "If the day gets dark and a cloud surrounds it" (= EAE 41).

o 11'11'

ša lìb-bi * U₄ ŠÚ-ma DUNGU i-lam-ma

o 12'12'

* ina itiBÁRA dIŠKUR -šú ŠUBdi ŠE GUú TURir

(12') "If in the month of Nisannu (I) Adad roars, the crops of barley (and) flax will diminish" (= EAE 42 1) (means) if from the month of Araḫsamna (VIII) (Adad) he has not roared, and has only started (šurrû) to do so from the month of Nisannu (I) on, the evil (prognosis) will be the same for the rest of the months.

o 13'13'

      ki-i ul-tu ŠÀ itiAPIN -šú la it-ta-du-u

o 14'14'

      ù ul-tu ŠÀ itiBÁRA ul-ter-ru-ú lum-nu

o 15'15'

      ša gab-bi ITI-MEŠ ŠU.BI..ÀM

o 16'16'

* ina itiGU₄ dIŠKUR -šú ŠUB-ma KItim!(.MUN) lu Ì.GIŠ lu A.ÉSIR

(16') "If in the month of Ayyāru (II) Adad roars and the land exudes either oil, or bitumen or asphalt, the land will be consumed by diarrhea for three months and ten days" (= EAE 42 110). "Diarrhoea" means suālu-disease, i.e., "to excrete." The signs ŠÀ.SUR mean "diarrhoea," where ŠÀ means "belly" and SUR means "to urinate."

o 17'17'

      lu A.ÉSIR.UD.DU.<A> i-ḫi-la 3 ITI-MEŠ U₄ 10-KAM KUR ina? [niš-ḫi] TILti1

o 18'18'

      niš-ḫu : su-a-lu : ṣa-na-ḫu : ŠÀ.SUR [: niš]-ḫu2

o 19'19'

      ŠÀ : lib-bu : SUR : ši-[te-en]-nu3

o 20'20'

* ina itiGU₄ dIŠKUR -šú GIM U.GU x [x x x]

(20') "If in the month of Ayyāru (II) Adad [roars] like a beast (U.GU), rain from the sky, flooding [of ...]" (= EAE 42 122). U means "noise," and KA, when pronounced /kiri/, means [...]. "Like the noise," [...]. (Hence) UGU means "beasts," (is) like it said.

o 21'21'

      ŠUR ANe RAaṣ-[ma x x]

o 22'22'

      U : ri-ig-mu [:] ki*-riKA : [x x x]4

o 23'23'

      ki-ma ri-ig-mi : [x x x]

o 24'24'

      : ú-guUGU : ú-ma-mu ki-ma iq-[bu-ú]5

r 25'r 25'

[*] ina itiKIN dIŠKUR -šú GIM ANŠE.KUR.RA -tam-mar

(25') "If in the month of Elūlu (VI) Adad roars like a horse, violent attack, gathering of scattered people; the rivers will cross over each other; rains and floods will come early; the barley will lie in the furrows (IKU) continuously." (= EAE 42 126 (?) = SpTU 2 41 r 20). IKU means "furrow," so "in the furrow" (is) what is said.

r 26'26'

      ZIut gišTUKUL pa-ḫar UN!(KAL-)MEŠ BIR-MEŠ

r 27'27'

      ÍD-MEŠ a-ḫa-meš i-še-ʾi-i-[ra]6

r 28'28'

      ŠÈG-ME u ILLU-ME ḫar-pu ŠE <ina> .IKU ZAL [iṣ]7

r 29'29'

      i-ku.IKU : ši-ir-ʾu ina ši-ir-ʾi šá iq-bu-[ú]8

r 30'30'

* ina itiAPIN dIŠKUR -šú GIM ši-ga-ti is-[si]

(30') "If during the month of Araḫsamna (VIII) Adad roars like a šigātu, flooding waters will carry off the land's harvest, cursing of god and king." (= EAE 42 128 (?)). ("Like a šigātu" means) "like a shepherd's šuqātu."

r 31'31'

      BURU₁₄ KUR A-MEŠ ub-ba-lu a-ra-ár DINGIR u LUGAL?

r 32'32'

      ki-ma šu-qa-ti ša SIPA9

r 33'33'

mu-kal-lim-ti * U₄ AN dEN.LÍL šu-ut KA šá KA UM.ME.A

(33') Mukallimtu-commentary on Enūma Anu Enlil, with oral explanations, following the sayings of a scholar, (referring to entries) from "If in the month of Nisannu Adad roars" (= EAE 42).

r 34'34'

ša lìb-bi * ina itiBÁRA dIŠKUR -šú ŠUBdi

r 35'35'

* ina itiGU₄ dIŠKUR -šú ina IGI-PAR dUTU ŠUB NIM.GÍR

(35') "If in the month of Ayyāru (II) Adad roars in the IGI-PAR of the sun but there is no lightning or rainbow, for three years the people will be agitated, one man will accuse the other," (= K.3551+ o 8'-9' = EAE 43 unplaced) (written IGI-PA-RU) means "to appear," (and hence the protasis means) "if (Adad) roars at sunrise."

r 36'36'

      la ib-ríq dTIR.AN.NA NU GIB MU 3-KAM

r 37'37'

      UN-MEŠ -še-ḫa-a-ma ub-bar

r 38'38'

      IGI.paRU :* na-an-mu-ru ina KURiḫ dUTU -šú ŠUB-ma10

r 39'39'

* ina iti[x d]IŠKUR -šú ŠUB-ma dTIR.AN.NA šá MÚŠ-šá

(39') "If in the month of [...] Adad roars and a rainbow whose appearance is predominantly [x color] stretches from north to south, [...] in the north, floods will come, [...] will be" (EAE 43 unplaced). [...] means [...]mānu.

r 40'40'

ma-[diš x x TA tu₁₅]U₁₈.LU ana tu₁₅SI. GIB11

r 41'41'

x-[x x x x tu₁₅]SI. ILLU-ME DU-MEni

r 42'42'

x [x x x x x]-ME GARan

r 43'43'

x [x x x x x]-ma-nu

r 44'44'

* [x x x x x x x x] KASKAL* ŠEŠ.UNUG*<ki> ina-qar

(44') "If [...] will destroy the [cities] of the road to Ur" (EAE 43 unplaced) [...] great [...].

r 45'45'

[x x x x x x x x x] GALú

r 46'46'

[x x x x x x x x x x] x

(rest of tablet missing)

1The restoration of nišḫu at this point seems unavoidable. Note that nišḫu, "diarrhea," appears in the apodosis of an unpublished tablet of astological omens (CAD N/2 280a, nišḫu ana nišī imaqqut).

2Apparently the earth "exudating" oil and bitumen allowed the ancient author to "deduce" the curious apodosis. The commentator then used explanation of the name of the disease "diarrhoea" (nišḫu) which was known to him from other astrological and medical commentaries (CAD N/2 279b).

3The equation at the end of the line is also attested in an Ālu commentary from Uruk (CCP 3.5.45.A, cited in CAD Š/1 409b).

4On the first equation, cf. e.g. {ù}U₄ = rigmu (MSL 14 332 l. 14). The gloss to kiri₃ could have been either appu, "nose," or būṣu, "hyena."

5UGU = umāmu is probably based on Ú.KÚ = umāmu (Hh XIV 388). The lacuna in l. 23' precludes the understanding of the gist of the explanation. U. Gabbay (privatim) considers the restoration ki-ma i[q-bu-ú] very unlikely, "since all other syllabic writings of the term read kī iqbû. Also, since kīma occurs also in the previous line for a description, this is probably the case in this line as well (perhaps ki-ma r[i-gim ...] or similar, or ki-ma i[k-kil] or similar)."

6On the use of šaʾāru, said of bodies of water, see Schwemer NABU 2003/97, who translates it as "passieren, überschreiten."

7The interpretation of the last two words as lazziš irabbiṣ follows AHw 1585a.

8According to U. Gabbay (privatim), "The restoration of the term ša iqbû is unlikely because it does not occur in such a context. It is supposed to cite a text before a commentary on it, and here there is nothing after it. There is no ú in the tablet, and BU although possible is certainly not the only possible restoration. The restoration ša eq-[lim] in the original copy is not bad, although not necessarily correct.

9šuqātu is a hapax legomenon. An emendation to zer!-qa-ti would yield the sense "like the shepherd's sheep," but is unconvincing epigraphically.

10The line ingenuously interprets the difficult IGI+UD {d}UTU from the protasis as IGI.PAR, and hence as some kind of writing of PÀD, PÀD(IGI{pa}.RU) :* na-an-mu-ru. This is then equated with “at sunrise” (for a more plausible interpretation of IGI-UD as a corruption, see CAD Š/3 57a).

11manzât ša zīmīša mādiš + COLOR is an expression also attested in EAE 45 (Gehlken CM 43 [2012] p. 56 l. 16') and 46 (ibid. p. 106 l. 53'-54').

Photos by Enrique Jiménez

Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum