CCP 3.2.u1.A.b - Sîn ina tāmartīšu (?) A

Catalogue information
British Museum
NinevehNineveh (Kuyunjik)
DivinationAstrological. Sîn ina tāmartīšu


Base text: 
Sîn ina tāmartīšu (?)
Commentary no: 
Tablet information
1 (or >)
10,16 × 6,98 cm
7th cent (Assurbanipal libraries and other Assyrian cities)

CAD N/1 31[ACh Sin 3 81-83 // K.3155 7']

Frahm, 2011E. Frahm, Babylonian and Assyrian Text Commentaries. Origins of Interpretation. Ugarit-Verlag, 2011.: 159

Koch-Westenholz, 1995U. Koch-Westenholz, Mesopotamian Astrology. An Introduction to Babylonian and Assyrian Celestial Divination. Museum Tusculanum, 1995.
[On line 2-3]
: 159 fn. 73

Reiner, 1998aE. Reiner, Celestial Omen Tablets and Fragments in the British Museum, in tikip santakki mala bašmu.. Festschrift für Rykle Borger zu seinem 65. Geburtstag am 24. Mai 1994, S. M. Maul, Ed. Styx, 1998, pp. 215-302.
[[ad K.3155] comm., dupl. STT 339; K 3013; K 11392; cf. ACh. Sin 13, Supp. 16, 81-2-4, 226]
: 227

Wainer, 05/2016 (Introduction)
Wainer, 05/2016 (Transliteration)
Wainer, 05/2016 (Translation)
Wainer, 05/2016 (Annotation)
Jiménez, 08/2016 (Commentary markup)
By Zack Wainer | Make a correction or suggestion
How to cite
Wainer, Z., 2016, “Commentary on Sîn ina tāmartīšu (?) (CCP 3.2.u1.A.b),” Cuneiform Commentaries Project (E. Frahm, E. Jiménez, M. Frazer, and K. Wagensonner), 2013–2021; accessed October 20, 2021, at DOI: 10079/2bvq8g5
© Cuneiform Commentaries Project (Citation Guidelines)

K 3155 is a celestial-­divinatory commentary concerned with the Moon, though seemingly unconnected to any one tablet of Enūma Anu Enlil. That being said, this text has a number of parallels with Sîn ina tāmartīsu Tablet 1, as well as the Sultantepe commentary STT 2 339 (CCP 3.2.u1.A.d). K 3155 is written in Assyrian script, and like most other celestial­-divinatory commentaries, seemingly comes from the Library of Assurbanipal in Nineveh. Only one side of K 3155 is preserved, though whether that is the obverse or reverse is uncertain at this point.


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K 03155 (unpublished unassigned ?)

o 1'o 1'

[...] x x x x x x x [...]1

[] (traces) []

o 2'2'

    [...]-ma : 30 ina IGI-šú KI.GUB-su [GI.NA (GUB) ...]2

[] : the Moon, when it is seen, its position [is stable (and it stands)]

o 3'3'

    [...] GI ka-a-nu GI ta-ra-ku GI šá-la-mu3

[] (the sign) gi (means) “to be stable,” (the sign) gi (means) “to be dark,” (the sign) gi (also means) “to be peaceful.”

o 4'4'

[* 30 NU IGI-ma 2 U₄.SAKAR-MEŠ IGI-MEŠ] munusKÚR ina KUR.KUR GAR U₄.14.KÁM U₄.15.KÁM4

[If the Moon is not seen but two crescents are seen,] hostility will be established in the lands (the protasis means that on) the 14th (or) the 15th,

o 5'5'

    [TA BARlu ḫap-rat 30 par-sat BAR-ma] u ḫap-rat 20 par-sat BAR-ma : ina nab-ṭè-e IGI-ma5

[from the midpoint, the disk of the Moon is divided in half] and the disc of the sun is divided in half; (variant): they are seen at the horizon

o 6'6'

    [AN.GE₆ DIBiq NU GAR GIM AN.GE₆] ta-ḫar-ra-aṣ nab-ṭu-ú ina GU₄.UD dUTU IGI.IGI6

but an eclipse passes by and does not occur; nevertheless,] you treat (it) [as an eclipse;] the horizon is seen at sunrise;

o 7'7'

    [2 ŠÚ AN.GE₆ EGIR a-ḫa-meš GAR-ma?] KIŠI₄.ZI nab-ṭu-u šá mut-ta-as-su zi-<za>-át ina li-šá-ni qa-bi7

(variant): the two (of them, that is, the Sun and Moon,) are dark, (and) an eclipse will occur after another (eclipse);] (the logogram) kiš₄.zi (is associated with) “the horizon,” because half of it is risen (this) is said in a commentary/synonym list.

o 8'8'

[...] GABA.RI8

[] the same.

o 9'9'

[* 30 ina È-šú šu-šur? ŠE] al 30 IGI-ma DUNGU ia--nu9

[If the Moon at its rising proceeds straight, barley] will decrease (the protasis means that) the Moon is seen and there are no clouds.

o 10'10'

[* 30 ina IGI.-šú pur-ru-ur?] KUR ŠÀ.ḪUL IGI ŠU.BI..ÀM10

[If the Moon at its appearance dissipates,] the land will experience sorrow (the protasis means) the same (as the protasis in the previous entry).

o 11'11'

[* 30 ina IGI.-šú BABBAR KI.LAM x] UD ina DUNGU BABBAR IGI-ma : UD.DA-su pe-ṣa-at11

[If the Moon at its appearance is white, the market ] (the protasis means that the Moon) is seen in a white cloud; (variant): its light is white.

o 12'12'

[* 30 ina IGI.-šú SA₅ KUR ḪÉ.NUN] IGI KI.LAM nap-šá KUR GU₇ ina DUNGU SA₅ IGI-ma : UD.DA-su SA₅át12

[If the Moon at its appearance is red, the land will experience abundance;] the land will enjoy a robust market (the protasis means that the Moon) is seen in a red cloud; (variant): its light is red;

o 13'13'

    : AN.GE₆ : ÉR GÁLši

(variant): eclipse; (variant): there will be wailing.

o 14'14'

[* 30 ina IGI.-šú ...] x BABBAR-ME dèr-ra ina KUR GU₇ LUGAL ŠEŠ-šú : -šú GAZ-šú

[If the Moon at its appearance ] are white, Erra will ravage in the land; (variant): the king will kill his brother; (variant): his man.

o 15'15'


(variant): there will be illnesses in the land.

o 16'16'


[] (variant): there will be an eclipse of the morning of planets; (variant): that enemy king will bind him(?).

o 17'17'

    [... ina DUNGU?] SIG₇ IGI-ma : UD.DA-su SIG₇át13

[( the protasis means that the Moon)] is seen [in] a yellow [cloud]; (variant): its light is yellow.

o 18'18'

[* 30 ina IGI.-šú GE₆?] GIG-ME ina KUR GÁL-MEŠ ina DUNGU GE₆ IGI-ma : UD.DA-su GE₆át14

[If the Moon at its appearance is black] there will be sickness in the land (the protasis means that the Moon) is seen in a black cloud; (variant): its light is black.

o 19'19'

[... IR KUR ÚRIM]ki ŠÀ GARan u U₄ ZÁLAG ni-i-ru IGI ma-gal SA₅-ma : UD.DA-su SA₅át15

[ the land of Akkad ] is placed within and the day is bright (the protasis means that) the Yoke-(constellation?) is seen (and) is very red; (variant): its light is red.

o 20'20'

[...] x IGI ina AN.GE₆ DUNGU GÙN IGI-ma : UD.DA 30 KÚR.KÚR-[ma?]

[] is seen (the protasis means that) during an eclipse, (the Moon) is seen in a variegated cloud; (variant): the light of the Moon is constantly changing

o 21'21'

[* 30 ina IGI.-šú e-ki-il? di]-ḫu u? di-lip- ina KUR GÁL AN.GE₆ BI GE₆ : UD.DA?-[su GE₆át?]16

[If the Moon at its appearance is dark,] there will be diʾu-illness and trouble in the land (the protasis means that) that eclipse is black (variant): [its] light [is black].

o 22'22'

[* 30 TÙR mar-ra-tu NIGIN ŠE u?] ŠE.GIŠ.Ì mar-ra-tu dTIR.AN.NA TÙR dTIR.AN.[NA NIGIN-ma?]17

[If the Moon is surrounded by a cattle-pen-halo (that looks like) a marratu-rainbow, decrease of barley and] sesame (the term) marratu (that is used in the protasis to mean “rainbow” is associated with the logogram) d.TIR.AN.NA, (which also means “rainbow,” so that the protasis means that the Moon) [is surrounded by] a cattle-pen-halo (that looks like a) rainbow.

o 23'23'


[If the Moon on the 1st is surrounded by a cattle-pen-halo, eclipse] the rainbow, its name is <“day of abundance”>; (the protasis means that the Moon) is surrounded by a white cattle-pen-halo and [it rains].

o 24'24'

[* 30 TÙR GAL?] DAB/NÍGINu : TÙR NU DUNGU : ina È-šú [TÙR NÍGIN-ma]

[If the Moon] is surrounded [by a large cattle-pen-halo]; (variant): a cattle-pen-halo without a cloud; (variant): (the Moon) at its rising [is surrounded by a cattle-pen-halo];

o 25'25'

    [U₄.5.KÁM TÙR NÍGIN-ma] : AN.GE₆ TÙR [NÍGIN-ma?]

[(variant): (the Moon on) the 5th is surrounded by a cattle-pen-halo]; (variant): an eclipse [is surrounded] by a cattle-pen-halo;

o 26'26'

    [30 ina U₄ SUD TÙR NÍGIN ina U₄?] NU ŠÚ šá itiŠU itiNE [u itiKIN?]19

[ (these protases mean that) the Moon will eventually be surrounded by a cattle-pen-halo on a day (that)] is not cloudy; that is, (during) Tammuz (IV), Ab (V), [or Elul (VI)].

o 27'27'

[* 30 ina itiŠE ina IGI.-šú TÙR NÍGIN-ma? mul]SIPA.ZI.AN.NA ina ŠÀ-šú GUB ina ITI [BI AN.GE₆ GARan]20

[If the Moon in the month of Adar (XII), at its appearance, is surrounded by a cattle-pen-halo and] the True-Shepherd-of-Anu-constellation stands within it, in that month, [an eclipse will occur].

o 28'28'

[* 30 ina È-šú 2 DUR-MEŠ pe-lu-tu₄ šá] DUNGU BABBAR [NIGIN AN.GE₆ GAR-ma]

[If the Moon at its rising is surrounded by two reddish bands of] a white cloud, [an eclipse will occur];

o 29'29'

    [ina ÉSAG-ME ŠE ir-ru-ur] ub-bu-[ṭu GAR]21

[in the storerooms, barley will rot (and)] famine [will occur].

remainder of the tablet is broken

1Compare perhaps to the end of the first line of SIT 1:§45 Source C (K 2066).

2Compare the interpretation (mostly) preserved here to the third interpretation in SIT 1:§45. While this interpretation is in the beginning of the last line of SIT 1:§45 Source C (K 2066), it is in the penultimate line here. This may be do to a different arrangement of interpretations here as compared to SIT 1:§45 (see, for example, SAA 8 107:6–r.3, where multiple interpretations of SIT 1:§45 are preserved but in a different order than in SIT). It is unclear whether some writing of izzaz should be restored at the end of the mostly preserved comment, as this verb is lacking in SIT 1:§45, but present in SAA 8 107:r.2–3 (partially restored) and 330:r.6. For the idea that the expression KI.GUB refers to a celestial subject's position at first visibility (on the horizon) on a particular night, see E. Reiner and D. Pingree, Babylonian Planetary Omens, Part Two: Enūma Anu Enlil, Tablets 50‒51, vol. 2, Bibliotheca Mesopotamica 2 (Malibu: Undena Publications, 1981):17, and E. Reiner and D. Pingree, Babylonian Planetary Omens: Part Three, Cuneiform Monographs 11 (Groningen: Styx, 1998):18–19.

3This seems to be the last line of the entry also known from SIT 1:§45. For other examples of this lexical interpretation (aside from SIT 1:§45), see SAA 8 107:r.1–2 (partially restored); 304:r.1–3 (in a different order); and 330:r.5 (includes only two of three lexical interpretations). This lexical interpretation seeks to connect, through homophony, the only comment preserved in this entry with the protasis and apodosis that are not preserved here. Restoring from SIT 1:§45 and parallels, a form of the verb tarāku (to be dark) is found in the protasis, while a nominal formation from šalāmu (to be at peace) occurs in the protasis. The verbs kânu (to be stable), tarāku, and šalāmu, are all associated with the sign GI in this lexical comment. Here, the commentator levels the logographic representations of these three verbs to a basic, common form. The verb kânu and its derivatives are written logographically as GI.NA, though GI is known as an abbreviation for (for this, see the celestial-divinatory commentary K 6452:r.5' (ACh Supp. 16), VAT 9307:29 (KAR 4), which has GI. for ana kunni, and Enūma Eliš Commentary II:115 in W. G. Lambert, Babylonian Creation Myths, Mesopotamian Civilizations 16 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2013):141, which has GI = [ka-a]-nu). Conversely, tarāku, like other verbs with the same meaning, is expressed through the sign MI, which is read GI₆ (see, for example, CAD T:234–235, s.v. tarku). Only šalāmu is routinely expressed through GI alone, and only in the first millennium (for examples of šalāmu written with the sign GI, see especially CAD Š/I:215–216 and 220, s.v. šalāmu 3b, 4a, and 7a3').

4Restored from SIT 1:§50.

5Mostly restored from SIT 1:§50, with par-sat restored instead of 1-šú from SIT 1:§50 because of the next phrase in this line.

6Restored from SIT 1:§50 Source L (Sm 751).

7The beginning is restored from SIT 1:§50 Source B (K 2068 + K 2251), which includes this interpretation after the final interpretation in K 3155:7'. The interpretation of KIŠI₄.ZI as “half of it is divided” is an example of Notarikon, based on the translation of KIŠI₄ into Akkadian muttatu (for this equation in the lexical texts, see CAD M/II:310, s.v. muttatu A lexical), and a form of alliteration, as the sign ZI is represented by the stative verb zīzat. Note that it is seemingly the heavenly-body that is divided in this explanation. For this omen, see SIT 1:§50 (with variants); EAE 1:§56 in L. Verderame, Le tavole I-VI della serie astrologica Enūma Anu Enlil, Nisaba 2 (Messina: Di.Sc.A.M, 2002):12ff.; K 6452:8'–10' (ACh Supp. 16; includes parts of three comments); SAA 8 255:1–3 (comment similar to one of the comments in SIT); 359:1–3 (no comment); and perhaps SAA 8 561:1'.

8Though the preserved portion of this omen is extremely generic, it may parallel SIT 1:§51.

9For the restoration at the beginning, see SIT 1:§61C. Though the interpretation of this entry in SIT is not preserved, the next entry in SIT 1, which seems to parallel K 3155:10' (which in turn is interpreted in “the same” way as K 3155:9'), is interpreted as meaning that “the Moon is seen and there are no clouds” in STT 2 339:22'. For this omen, see EAE 6 Source l:46' in Verderame, Le tavole I-VI della serie astrologica Enūma Anu Enlil:197.

10For the restoration at the beginning, see STT 2 339:22', which it parallels. For this entry, see also SIT 1:§62C. For the D-stem of the verb parāru used with the Moon, see 1881-7-27, 96:2 (identified by E. F. Weidner, “Die astrologische Serie Enûma Anu Enlil,” Archiv für Orientforschung 14 (1941–1944):315 as an exemplar of EAE 9); Rm 2, 128:r.8' (ACh Supp. 12:24'; mentions clouds); and K 12655:2 (mentions clouds). Though the logic behind the association between this omen and its interpretation is uncertain, there is a potential connection between the verb purruru, “to dissipate” in the protasis and the term DUNGU, “cloud,” which is implied in the comment. The N-stem of this verb in the protasis is associated with the sign DIRI in Diri I:17 (MSL XV:106), which is also the second element of the term DUNGU (written IM.DIRI) that is implied in the comment.

11For this restoration, see STT 2 339:23', which it parallels.

12For this restoration, see SAA 8 263:3–4 and STT 2 339:24'–25', which it parallels.

13Compare this entry to STT 2 339:26'–29', to which it is very similar.

14For this restoration, see STT 2 339:30'–31', which it parallels.

15For this restoration, see STT 2 339:32'–33', which it parallels.

16For the inspiration behind this restoration, see STT 2 339:3–4, which it parallels.

17For the inspiration behind this restoration, see SIT 1:§81', which it parallels. For the phrase dTIR.AN.NA UD ḪÉ.NUN MU.NI, “The rainbow, its name is 'day of abundance,'” partially restored in the comment, see MUL.APIN II iii:33 (for which, see H. Hunger and D. Pingree, MUL.APIN: An Astronomical Compendium in Cuneiform, Archiv für Orientforschung Beiheft 24 (Horn, Austria: Verlag Ferdinand Berger & Söhne, 1989):112 ff.) and the so-called Great Star List:167 (according to the numbering in U. S. Koch-Westenholz, Mesopotamian Astrology: An Introduction to Babylonian and Assyrian Celestial Divination, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications 19 (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1995):194–195). If I have correctly restored and understood this entry, then this explanation interprets the restored protasis in light of an alternate designation for the rainbow in Mesopotamian scholarship, by way of homography and association of cause and effect. The sign UD, read as ud, “day,” in the designation “day of abundance” is read as BABBAR, “white,” in the comment, while the logogram ḪÉ.NUN, “abundance,” is associated with rain in the comment, which brings abundance.

18For this restoration, see SIT 1:§82', which it parallels. I have not restored the alternate interpretation from SIT 1:§82' to the end of K 3155:23', as the spacing at the end of K 3155:23' seems to indicate to me that this alternate interpretation was not included.

19For this restoration, see SIT 1:§83', which it parallels. For DAB in the protasis as a logogram meaning law/, “to surround,” see YBC 7158:36 (Secondary branches of Proto-Ea and Proto-Aa No.19 [MSL XIV:141]), where the sign KU (with the reading DAB₅) is associated with the Akkadian la-a-wu-ú-um, and where in six of the seven entries from the same grouping, the sign KU (with the reading DAB₅) is connected to Akkadian verbs normally subsumed under the purview of the sign DAB and not KU (these are ṣabātu, kullum, bâʾum, kamûm, šūḫuzum and aḫāzum). For other evidence of /dab/ meaning lawû, see Nabnītu O:264 (MSL XVI:294), where DAB₄ (the DUB sign) = la-wu-ú. But see the brief note in R. Borger, Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon, 2nd ed., Alter Orient und Altes Testament 305 (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2010):no.813 for a dissenting opinion.

20For this restoration, see SIT 1:§84', which it parallels.

21For this restoration, see SIT 1:§85', which it parallels.

Photos by Zack Wainer

Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum