CCP 1.4 - Theodicy

Catalogue information
British Museum
BM 66882
82-9-18,6876+ 82-9-18,6960+ AH.83-1-18, 1372+ AH.83-1-18, 1876+ AH.83-1-18, 2204+ 83-1-21, 207+ 83-1-21,208 + 83-1-21,209
Borsippa(Borsippa)
joins: 
BM 66882+ BM 76009+ BM 76506+ BM 76832+ BM 83044+ BM 83045+ BM 83046
CDLI: 
P404917
Publication
Copy: 
BWL pl. 26 [BM 66882+ BM 76506]
CT 41 40-41 [BM 66882]
Lambert Folios 1568-1573 [copy]
ORA 14 pls. lx-lxi
Editions: 

Lambert, 1960bW. G. Lambert, Babylonian Wisdom Literature. Clarendon Press, 1960.: 63-89

Commentary
LiteraryTheodicy

ṣâtu 7a

Base text: 
Theodicy
Tablet information
Babylonian
Fragment
Columns: 
1
Lines: 
obv 44, rev 38
Size: 
6,03 × 3,81 cm
Neo/Late Babylonian, specifics unknown
Colophon
Nabû-nādin-šumi s. Bēl-x-[o]
Bibliography

Frahm, 2011E. Frahm, Babylonian and Assyrian Text Commentaries. Origins of Interpretation. Ugarit-Verlag, 2011.: 32, 53, 60-62, 64-69, 72, 75, 93, 120-21, 311

Gabbay, 2016U. Gabbay, The Exegetical Terminology of Akkadian Commentaries. Brill, 2016.
[41 (r iii 14, r iv 23), 75 (Th 200, Th 215, Th 219, Th 223–224, Th 224, Th 288), 111 (r iii), 135 (Th 23, Th 39, Th 41, Th 57, Th 76, Th 212, Th 255, Th 208–209), 138 (Th 48), 139 (Th 62, Th 62), 135, 136 (Th 271), 135, 136, 143 (Th 265)]

Genty, 2010aT. Genty, Les commentaires dans les textes cunéiformes assyro-babyloniens. MA thesis, 2010.: 609-638

Jiménez, 2014bE. Jiménez, New Fragments of Gilgamesh and Other Literary Texts from Kuyunjik, Iraq, vol. 76, pp. 99-121, 2014.
[On line o 20: Collation, read šu-m[uḫ* : šá-ma-ḫ]u : banû(dù-u) : min : ra*-bu*-u*, “‘abunda[nce’ (šumuḫ) (derives from the verb) ‘to grow abunda]ntly’ (šamāḫu), (which means) ‘to grow’ (banû); the same (sc. šamāḫu) (also means) ‘to become big’ (rabû).]
: 103

Labat, 1933R. Labat, Commentaires assyro-babyloniens sur les présages. Imprimerie-Librairie de l’Université, 1933.
[Edition of BM 66882]
: 102-109

Lambert, 1960bW. G. Lambert, Babylonian Wisdom Literature. Clarendon Press, 1960.: 63-89

Lambert, 1990W. G. Lambert, Etymology, Ancient Near Eastern, in A Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation, R. J. Coggins and Houlden, J. L. SCM Press, 1990, pp. 214-216.
[On line r 11]
: 216

Oelsner, 1986J. Oelsner, Materialien zur Babylonischen Gesellschaft und Kultur in Hellenistischer Zeit. Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, 1986.
[From Borsippa?]
: 227

Record
Jiménez, 06/2017 (Transliteration)
Jiménez, 06/2017 (Translation)
Jiménez, 06/2017 (Collation)
Jiménez, 06/2017 (Introduction)
By Enrique Jiménez |
Cite this edition
Jiménez, E., “Commentary on Theodicy (CCP no. 1.4),” Cuneiform Commentaries Project (2017), at http://ccp.yale.edu/P404917 (accessed September 20, 2017)
Make a correction or suggestion
Introduction

The Theodicy is one of the most sophisticated literary texts in the long history of Mesopotamian belles lettres. Written as an acrostic in a very rigid metric structure, the conciseness of the poetic diction of the poem, combined with its taste for obscure words and abstruse metaphors, meant that its understanding posed a challenge for generations of scribes. Under these circumstances, it is hardly surprising that it was one of the few literary texts from Mesopotamia known to have received an ancient commentary.

The commentary is preserved only on the tablet edited below, formed by seven smaller fragments, five of which were rejoined by Irving Finkel. 82 unusually long lines are preserved. When complete, the present tablet must have fall slightly short of one hundred lines, which makes it one of the longest known text commentaries. The lišlim-formula on the top edge of the tablet suggests that it stems from Babylon or Borsippa (since it invokes Marduk and Nabû) and dates to the late Achaemenid or Hellenistic period.1 The partially preserved colophon states that the tablet belonged to a Nabû-nādin-šumi (or Nabû-šuma-iddina) son of Bēl-…

 

The commentary is concerned almost exclusively with philological matters. These matters include, first, the explanation of some of the obscure words used by the poem. The exegesis proceeds in different ways. Wherever there is lexical information available, the commentary simply cites it: thus, in l. o 16 the commentary cites “in vertical” the lexical list Malku to explain the difficult word taḫanātu, “help.”

Frequently the commentary provides the lemmata of verbs or nouns, introduced by ana (e.g. ll. o 5, 7 (3×), 14, 15 (2×), 22, [24], 28, 36, 39, r 7′, 11′, 13′, 14′, 29′, 31′, 32′, [38′]) as a way of analyzing them. Thus, in o 15 irimmu (Theodicy 41) is said to stem ana rêmi, “from ‘to take pity’.” In a couple of instances the commentary adduces a dialectal form to explain a Standard Babylonian one (o 14 and r 12′): e.g. in l. o 14 it equates samku with sangu. Difficult words are often explained by means of etymographical (notarikon) analyses (ll. o 4, o 19–20, 21, 25, 37, 42, r 11′, 21′–22′, 33′–34′): thus, in o 21 the goddess name Mami is explained as “the creatress of the people,” since ma means “to create” and me means “people.” Interestingly, the technical term ana muḫḫi is used in this commentary exclusively for introducing these sorts of etymographical analyses (ll. o 16, 20, and 25).

The exegete also makes full use of the principle of “lexical transitivity,”2 i.e., the idea that, if two words share a logogram, then they are equivalent. The present commentary makes the link explicit by quoting the logogram in question (ll. o 4–5, 11, 13, 15, 18, 19, [26]–27, 30, r 8′, 16′, 21′, 37′, 38′): thus, in r 38′, “‘Has thrown me away’ — šub [means ‘to throw away,’ šub means ‘to] leave’.” Usually the explanandum is cited before citing the logograms, but it is also frequently omitted (e.g. o 15 and 19). The technical term umma is used once, in o 17.

Another important concern of the exegete is to explain that the word “wise,” wherever it appears in the Theodicy, refers to the “scribe”: in fact, the equation “‘sage’ means ‘scribe’” appears five times in the commentary: o 3, r 9′, 12′, 17′, r 19′–20′, cf. also r 10′. In r 9′ the exegete first states that the word “sage” means “scribe”; then he adds an alternative explanation according to which the “sage” in question is the god of wisdom, Ea. Interestingly, this alternative elucidation is justified by means of a previously unidentified quotation from a syncretistic hymn to Ninurta, in which Ea is said to be that god’s “ears” (i.e., intelligence).

Some of the explanations appear more or less verbatim several times: thus, o 29 = r 30′ and o 30 = r 38′. This fact, together with the various ways for quoting words from the base text (see above), suggests that the commentary is a work that grew over time, rather than a homogeneous composition of a single scribe.

 

The edition below has greatly profited from the use of an unpublished copy by W. G. Lambert (Folios 1568–1573), kindly made available by Andrew R. George. However, it also includes several collations, which are of relevance for the interpretation of both the commentary and the original text, and which are marked with an asterisk (o 12, r 24′, 30′, and, in particular, o 17 and r 9′).

  • 1. On the chronology of tablets furnished with a lišlim-formula, see M. T. Roth, ina amat DN1 u DN2 lišlim, Journal of Semitic Studies, vol. 33, pp. 1-9, 1988. P. 3.
  • 2. To use the expression coined by L. E. Pearce, Babylonian Commentaries and Intellectual Innovation, in Intellectual Life of the Ancient Near East. Papers Presented at the 43rd Rencontre assyriologique internationale, J. Prosecký Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Oriental Institute, 1998, pp. 331-338. P. 335.
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BWL pl. 26, BM 066882 + BM 076506

Top
t.e. 0 t.e. 0

ina a-mat dEN u dAG liš-lim

(t.e. 0) By the command of Bēl and Nabû, may (this work) suceed!

Obverse
o 1 o 1

a-⸢šiš? <:> it-pe-šu₂ : MIN! : ma-li-ku : ga-na : al-ka [:] x [x x] x [:] ga⸣-na : i-na-an-na : a-ta-⸢am⸣-[mar : a-mar : na-ṭa-lu] 1

(o 1) “Encompassing” (= Theodicy 1) <means> “competent,” ditto means “prudent.” gana (= Theodicy 1) means “come!,” [] gana means “now.” “See [thoroughly]!” (= Theodicy 2) [stems from “to see,” (which) means “to watch”], ditto means “to learn.” “Friend” (= Theodicy 2) means “partner” (šutāpu) ditto means “partner” (šuzāpu), “friend” means do[ubled.] “Hardship” (= Theodicy 2) means “troublesome things.” litm[udu (= Theodicy 3?) means ]

o 2 2

MIN : la-mad : tap-pu-u₂ : šu-ta-pi : MIN : šu-za-pi : tap-pu-u₂ : šu-⸢taš⸣-[nu-u₂ :] nam⸣-ra-ṣa : mar-ṣa-a-tu₂ : lit-⸢mu⸣-[du x x x (x x)] 2

o 3 3

a-a-na : ai-a-nu : a-a- : ai-a-nu- : mu-du-u : ṭup-šar-ri [: ]-⸢ti-ka [:] -ti [:] MIN [:] it⸣-[ti x x (x x)] 3

(o 3) (The word written) a-a-na (= Theodicy 5) means “where” (written ai-a-nu). “Where” (ayyiš) (= Theodicy 6) means “whence” (ayyānuš). “Sage” (= Theodicy 6) means “scribe.” ištīka (= Theodicy 6) (stems from) išti, alternatively, (it stems from) itti (“with”).

o 4 4

ni-is-sa-tu₂ : ni--ša₂-tu₂ : i-ši-ru : a-ša₂-ri : sa-na-qa : a-ša₂-ri : a-lak : a-ga-⸢rin⸣-[nu : um-mu : A? : DUMU? : RIN : pu]-uḫ-ḫur : i-⸢ta⸣-[ar : il-lak] 4

(o 4) “Wailing” (nissatu) (= Theodicy 7) means “wailing” (niššatu). “They go straight” (= Theodicy 8) (stems from) “to go straight,” (which means) “to draw near”; “to go straight” means “to go.” agari[nnu (= Theodicy 10) means “mother” (since) a means “son” and rin means “to g]ather.” “She goes ba[ck” (= Theodicy 10) means “she goes,”] (since) nígin means “to go back” and nígin means “to go.”

o 5 5

NIGIN₂ : ta-a-ri : NIGIN₂ : a-lak : ba-lu ta-ru-u₂-a : ba-lu : ša₂ la : ta-ru-u : ru-ub-bu-⸢u [: (x) x x]-⸢x-ʾ⸣-u : na-ra-am : ana x [x x x] 5

(o 5) “Without (balu) he who brought me up” (= Theodicy 11) balu means “without,” “to lift up” means “to raise.” [] “Beloved” (= Theodicy 13) stems from

o 6 6

tu-šak-pi-du : ka-pa-du : ṣa-ra-mu : la le-ʾi- : ki-ma la le-ʾ-u₂ : nak-di : pal⸣-[ḫu :] u₂⸣-kam-mar : GAR : ka-ma-ri ša₂ NIG₂.⸢GA [(x x)] 6

(o 6) “You make plot” (= Theodicy 13) (stems from) “to plot,” (which means) “to strive.” “In a stupid way” (= Theodicy 14) means “like a stupid.” “Humble” (= Theodicy 22) means “f[earful”]. ukammar (= Theodicy 22) gar means “to heap up (kamāru), said of possessions”; kummuru means “to gather.”

o 7 7

kum₂-mu-ri : pu-uḫ-ḫur : ku-up!-pi : ana kup₃-pa : na-a-ri : ku-mur-re-e : a-gu-u : ana ka-mar* : gi⸣-ip-šu₂ : a-gu-u : ga-pa-šu₂ : ma-a-di : ku-a-šu₂ : ana ka-a-šu₂

(o 7) “Spring” (kuppu) (= Theodicy 23) stems from “bank,” (i.e.), “river.” “Heap” (kumurrû) (= Theodicy 24) means “wave,” it stems from “to heap up” (kamāru). “Uprising” (gipšu) (= Theodicy 24) means “wave,” it stems from “to rise up” (gapāšu), (which) means “to be numerous.” “Thee” (kuāšu) (= Theodicy 25) means “to you” (ana kâšu).

o 8 8

lu-uṣ-ṣi-iṣ-ka : uṣ-ṣu-ṣu : ši-ta-lu : MIN : ša₂-a-lu ⸢:⸣ a-lak-tu₂ : ṭe₃-e-mu : qa-a-lu : ša₂-ta-qa : gat-ti : la-a-nu : ḫa-ša₂-ḫi : ḫu-šaḫ-ḫu 7

(o 8) “I will interrogate you” (luṣṣiṣka) (= Theodicy 25) (stems from) “to interrogate” (uṣṣuṣu), (i.e.,) “to ask questions”; ditto means “to ask.” “Way” (alaktu) (= Theodicy 25) means “mind.” “To pay attention” (qâlu) (= Theodicy 26) means to split open. “Appearance” (gattu) (= Theodicy 27) means “figure.” “Need” (ḫašāḫu) (= Theodicy 27) means “shortage,” (i.e.,) “hunger.”

o 9 9

bu-bu-tu₂ : ku-ši-ri : tak!-ši-⸢ri : MIN : tak-si-tu₂ : nik-⸢kas⸣-su : še-te-ku! : še-e-tu₂ : e-te-qa : mu-ut-tu-tu₂ : eṭ-lu-tu₂ : mu-tu₂ : eṭ-lu 8

(o 9) “Success” (kušīru) (= Theodicy 28) means “repair” (takšīru); ditto means “profit” (taksītu), (i.e.,) “property.” šētēku (= Theodicy 28) derives from ̄šêtu (“to be left”), (alternatively, it derives from) “to pass.” muttūtu (= Theodicy 28) means “manliness,” (since) mutu means “man.”

o 10 10

ku-bu-uk-ku : e-mu-qa : ?⸣-[di?-ḫu?] ⸢: x x x :⸣ ku⸣-ri : mur-ṣu : zi-me : bu-un-na-an-nu-u : ku-ru-um : ku-ru-um-mat : ṭa-pa-pu : še-bu-u

(o 10) “Force” (kubukku) (= Theodicy 29) means “strength.” Pr[osperity (= Theodicy 29)] means “Depression” (= Theodicy 30) means “disease.” “Face” (zīmū) (= Theodicy 30) means “features.” kurum (= Theodicy 31) means “sustenance” (kurummatu). “To be satisfied” (ṭapāpu) (= Theodicy 32) means “to be full.”

o 11 11

ku-un-nam-ma-a : i-kun-na-a : [sa-an-qa : GI :] sa-naq : GI : ka-a-nu : sa-ad-ri : sa-da-ri : ka-a-nu : dub-bu-biš : DIMMA.KUR₂.RA

(o 11) “It is established” (= Theodicy 33) means “they have established.” [“Restrained” (= Theodicy 34) gi means] “to restrain,” gi means “to establish.” “Balanced” (= Theodicy 35) (stems from) “to balance,” (which means) “to establish.” “Like a simpleton” (= Theodicy 35) dimma.kúr.ra means ‘simpleton’” (quotation from Nabnītu IV/IVa 100), (i.e.,) “mad” (lit., “he who changes his mind”). [ “to bec]ome” (= Theodicy 35) means “to resemble.” “To impose” (= Theodicy 36) means “to carry.” “Undecidedly” (= Theodicy 37) means “like an undecided person.” “Intellect” (= Theodicy 37) means “reason.” “You make resemble” (= Theodicy 37) si means “to make something become something,” si means “to resemble.”

o 12 12

dub-bu-bu : ša₂-ne₂-e ṭe₃-e-me : ka⸣/-[x x : e]-⸢mu⸣-u : ma-ša₂-lu : e-me-du : na-šu₂-u : sa-meš : GIM sa-mi-i : ur-qa : ṭe₃-e-mu : tu-⸢maš*-šil? 9

o 13 13

SI : šu-lu-ku : SI : ma-ša₂-lu : sa-⸢an⸣-[tak-ka : ka]-a-nu : la na-par-ka-a : la ba-ṭa-lu : sa-ba-sa : ze-nu-u : qad₃-mu ⸢: DINGIR x [(x x)] 10

(o 13) “Persi[stent” (= Theodicy 38) means “fi]rm.” “Incessant” (= Theodicy 38) means “unabating.” “To be angry” (= Theodicy 39) means “to be furious.” “Preeminent” (qadmu) (= Theodicy 39) means “god” [()], it stems from “before” (qudmu), (i.e.,) “in front of.” “Appeased” (salittu) (= Theodicy 40) means “appeas[ed” (salimtu) ] “To supplicate” (= Theodicy 40) means “to implore.” “Buried” (samku) (= Theodicy 41) means “buried” (sangu). “Not in order” (= Theodicy 41) means “not straight.”

o 14 14

ana qu-ud-mu : maḫ-ri : sa-lit-tu₂ : sa-⸢lim⸣-[tu₂ : x x] : ba-a-lu : la-ban ap-pi : sa-am-ku : sa-an-gu : la šu-šu-ri : la -[ru] 11

o 15 15

i-ri-im-mu : ana re-e-mu : mi-⸢ša₂-ru [: x x :] kaq⸣-da₃-a : ka-a-a-nu : ana kun-nu : NIGIN : sa-ḫar : NIGIN : bu-ʾ-u : sa-an-ni-[nu : x x (x)]

(o 15) “Takes pity” (= Theodicy 41) stems from “to take pity.” “Justice” (= Theodicy 42) [means ]. “Constantly” (= Theodicy 42) means “continuous,” (which) stems from “firmly established.” nigin means “to go around” (= Theodicy 42), nigin means “to look for.” “Slanderous” (= Theodicy 43) [means ].

o 16 16

šap-ṣu : dan-nu : ta-ḫa-na-⸢tu₂ [: ta-li-mat : a-zi]-⸢ba-tu₂ : u₂-sat : gi-mil U₄-ME SU₃-ME : ta-ḫa-na-tu₂ : ana UGU ḫa-[ta-nu] 12

(o 16) “Obstinate” (= Theodicy 43) means “harsh.” “Help” (taḫanātu) (= Theodicy 43) “‘succor,’ ‘support’ mean ‘assistance’” (quotation from Malku IV 196-198), (i.e.,) “aid for many days”; “help” (taḫanātu) stems from “to give shelter” (ḫa[tānu])

o 17 17

be-e-šu₂ : pe-tu-u₂ : na-ak-⸢ru⸣-[ṭu : x x x (x x)] : MIN : na-as-ḫu-ri : li-gi-sak-ku : um-⸢ma* lid*⸣-dak-ku : ge-e-su : na*⸣-[da-nu] 13

(o 17) “To break open” (= Theodicy 44) means “to open.” “Mer[cy” (= Theodicy 43) means ], ditto means “favor.” “May he grant you” (= Theodicy 44) is thus: “may he give you” “to grant” means “to g[ive”]; rig means “to grant” (and) rig means [“to presen]t.”

o 18 18

RIG₇ : ge-e-su : RIG₇ [: ša₂-ra]-ku : ak-tam-sak-ku : ka-ma-su : ka-na-šu₂ : GAM [: ka]-ma-su : GAM : ka⸣-[na-šu₂]

(o 18) “I bow to you” (= Theodicy 45) (stems from) “to bow,” (which means) “to prostrate,” (since) gam [means “to b]ow” (and) gam means “to pr[ostrate”].

o 19 19

a-ḫa-za : la-ma-du : KU₇.⸢KU₇ [: du--šu-pu :] KU₇⸣.KU₇ : aq-ri : si-qir₃ : a-mat : ak-ka-ta : ana ka⸣-[a-ti :] ak?-kan?⸣-[nu x (x x)]

(o 19) “To grasp” (= Theodicy 45) means “to learn.” k[u.ku means “very sweet,” (= Theodicy 46) k]u.ku means “valuable.” “Speech” (= Theodicy 46) means “word.” “Thee” (= Theodicy 47) means “to you.” “Wild [ass” (akannu) means ], it stems from gan, (i.e.,) “to give birth.”

o 20 20

ana UGU GAN : a-la-du : šu-⸢muḫ [: ša₂-ma]-⸢ḫu : DU₃u : MIN : ra-bu-u : ag-gu : dan-nu : ki-mil-⸢tu₂ [: x x x : EN pa-ni : x x] 14

(o 20) “Abunda[nce” (šumuḫ) (= Theodicy 48) (derives from the verb) “to grow abunda]ntly” (šamāḫu), (i.e,) ‘to grow’ (banû); ditto means “to become big” (rabû). “Savage” (= Theodicy 50) means “strong.” “Wrath” (= Theodicy 51) [means “Nouveau riche” (bēl pāni) (= Theodicy 52) means ], alternatively, “nouveau riche” means “owner of property.”

o 21 21

ša₂-⸢niš EN pa-ni : EN NIG₂.GA : d[ma-mi :] dGAŠAN-i₃-li₂ ⸢:⸣ DU₃at UN-MEŠ : MA : DU₃u : ME : UN-MEŠ : i-liš : [ana DINGIR : x x x x x x x x]

(o 21) (The goddess) “M[ami” (= Theodicy 53)] is (the goddess) Bēlet-ilī, “the creatress of the people,” (since) ma means “to create” (and) me means “people.” “Godward” (= Theodicy 54) means [“to the god.” ]

o 22 22

sat⸣-tuk-ku : gi-nu-u₂ ša₂ DINGIR-⸢MEŠ [: gi]-⸢nu⸣-u₂ : ša₂-nu-⸢u₂ [:] gi-mil : ana ga-ma-lu : na-gab : nap-ḫar [:] il⸣-[lu-uk : x x x x x]

(o 22) “Regular offering” (= Theodicy 55) means “present (ginû) of the gods” [ “regular” (gi]) means “repeated.” “Favored” (= Theodicy 57) stems from “to favor.” “Entirety” (= Theodicy 57) means “all.” “Je[wel” (= Theodicy 57) means ]

o 23 23

MIN : šum-su-ku : gi-na-ta-[ma :] gi-nu-u : a-ba-ma-LU : am-ma-tiš₂ : GIM er-ṣe-tu₂ : i-lim : ki-⸢ma [x x x x x x x x] 15

(o 23) “You are con[stant” (= Theodicy 58) (stems from)] “to be constant.” a-ba-LU (should be read as) ammatiš (= Theodicy 58 (?)), (which means) “like the Netherworld.” ilim (“god,” = Theodicy 58) means “like [a god ]

o 24 24

git₂-ma-lu : dan-nu : gi-⸢mis? [: ana] ga?⸣-ma-ri : qar-bat : ta-mir-tu₂ : mul-mul : šil-taḫ : ge⸣-[er : x x x x x x] 16

(o 24) “Superb” (= Theodicy 59) means “strong.” gimis (?) (= Theodicy 60) (stems from) “to complete.” “Field” (= Theodicy 60) means “meadow.” “Arrow” (= Theodicy 60) means “dart.” “Fo[e” (= Theodicy 61) means ]

o 25 25

bit-ru : bit-ru-u : ba-ru-[u : a]-⸢mar : ḫa-aš₂-tu₂ : KIti₃ : ana UGU ḪAŠ : ša₂-ga-šu₂ : qur-ru-nu : pu-⸢uḫ⸣-[ḫur x x x x x x x]

(o 25) “Consider!” (bitru, = Theodicy 61) (stems from) “to consider” (bitrû), (which stems from) “to examine” (bar[û), (which means) “to s]ee.” “Pit” (haštu, = Theodicy 62) means “ground,” it stems from haš, (which means) “to murder.” “To heap” (= Theodicy 63) means “to gat[her” ]

o 26 26

ma-ni-tu₄ : ša₂-a-ri [: mil-ki] ⸢: ṭe₃⸣-e-mu : zik-ri : a-mat : mut-ta-ka : mu-⸢ut⸣-[tu₂ x x x x x x x]

(o 26) “Breeze” (= Theodicy 67) means “wind.” [“Advice” (= Theodicy 68) me]ans “mind.” “Speech” (= Theodicy 69) means “word.” “’Fore you” (= Theodicy 69) (stems from) “’fo[re” (muttu) (which means) , (since) igi means “before” (maḫru)] (and) igi means “to see.” Alternatively, “’f[ore” (muttu) means ] (since) sag means “head” (and) sag means “face.” “Neglecte[r” (= Theodicy 70) means ].

o 27 27

IGI : a-mar : ša₂-niš mu⸣-[ut-tu₂ : x x :] SAG : re-e-šu₂ : SAG : pa-ni : muš-te-⸢mu⸣-[u₂ x x x x a-ša₂-aṭ]

(o 27) [“I was pulling” (= Theodicy 74)] (stems from) “to pull,” (which means) “to drag.” [] “Humble” (= Theodicy 75) means “poor.” “Surpasses me” (= Theodicy 76) stems from “to surp[ass” ]

o 28 28

ša₂-a-ṭu : ša₂-da-du [: x x x x x x]-⸢x : ka-tu-u : muš-ke-nu : il-⸢an-ni [:] ana e-lu⸣-[u x x x]

o 29 29

lil-lu : še-e-ri : lil⸣-[lu : x x x :] la ṭe₃-ma-nu : ḫar-ḫa-ri : gu-⸢za⸣-lu : MIN : še-e-ru₃ : [x x x x] 17

(o 29) “Stupid” (= Theodicy 76) means “furious,” “stu[pid” means , (which means)] “unintelligent.” “Scoundrel” (= Theodicy 77) means “ruffian,” ditto means “furious.” []

o 30 30

la mur-qa : la ṭe₃-⸢e⸣-[me : tat-ta-du-u :] ŠUB : na-du-u : ŠUB : e-ze-bi : u₂-ṣur-tu₂ : par-ṣi ⸢: mu? [x x x x]

(o 30) “Lack of reason” (= Theodicy 78) means “lack of intelligen[ce.” “You have forsaken” (lit., “you have thrown away,” = Theodicy 79)] šub means “to throw away,” šub means “to leave.” “Design” (= Theodicy 79) means “ordinance.” []

o 31 31

me-e-si : par-ṣi : te-me-⸢ek⸣-[ki : me-ku-u : x] x : qe₂-reb : lib₃-bi : il₃-ti : d-tar : ir?⸣-[(x)]-⸢x : ṭe₃-⸢e-mu [x x (x x)] 18

(o 31) “Decree” (= Theodicy 81) means “ordinance.” “You are negli[gent” (= Theodicy [81]) (stems from) “to be negligent,” (which means) ..]. “Midst” (= Theodicy 82) means “center.” “Goddess” (= Theodicy 83) means “Ištar.” “…” (= Theodicy 83) means “plan.”

o 32 32

sa-ga-a : sak-ku-u : par-⸢ṣi [x x x x x] x KI ša₂-a-ri : nak-lu : le-⸢ʾ-u₂ [: x (x)]-⸢it? uz-nu : x⸣-[x x x] 19

(o 32) sagû (= Theodicy 84?) means “rites” (sakkû), (which) means “cultic ordinances.” [] with the wind.” “Skilful” (= Theodicy unknown) means “competent.” [] intelligence” (= Theodicy unknown) means [], ditto means “competent.” šumme (= Theodicy unknown) [means ] [] ge means [].

o 33 33

MIN : le-ʾ-u₂ : šum-me : [x x x x x x x x x] ⸢: is/ma-tu?-u? :?[x (x)] x⸣-a-su : GEe : ?⸣-[x x (x)] 20

o 34 34

na-par-du-u₂ : na-ma-ri : ga/⸢ta⸣-[x x (x)] x x x da [x x x x x]-⸢pu⸣-u : ša₂-niš ti-rik ŠU-MIN a-⸢x⸣-[x x (x)]

(o 34) “To shine” (= Theodicy unknown) means “to be bright.” [] [] ; alternatively, “blow of the hands” [].

o 35 35

a-su : še-e-ri : ša₂-⸢niš ti⸣-[x x : (x)] x-ru⸣-šu₂ : la mu-du-u : er-⸢šu₂ ⸢: x [x x x] x⸣-ma : um-mu-lu : ra-a-bi : x [x x (x)] 21

(o 35) Bear (= Theodicy unknown) means fierce, alternatively, [] “Not sage” (= Theodicy unknown) means “wise.” [] “To be gloomy” (= Theodicy unknown) means “to quake” (from anger). [].

o 36 36

šum-⸢mu ⸢:⸣ [x x x x x] am⸣-ra : a-mur : am-mat : am-⸢ma-tu₄? [:] am-ma-rak : ana a-ra-ku : am-ša₂-⸢al? [x x (x)] 22

(o 36) šummu (= Theodicy unknown) means [] “Behold ye!” (= Theodicy unknown) means “behold!” ammat (= Theodicy unknown) means ear[th]. ammarak (= Theodicy unknown) stems from “to be long.” I resemble (= Theodicy unknown) [].

o 37 37

x [x x x ul-li-tiš : x x] x : ul-lu : u₄-mu : DIŠ : -⸢ten [:] la ma-tar : i-na-an-ni : u₂-ḫa-⸢ak⸣-[kam? x (x)] 23

(o 37) [ “The day after tomorrow” (ullūtiš) (= Theodicy unknown) means ], (since) ullu means “day” and diš means “one.” matar (= Theodicy unknown) means “now.” “He infor[ms (= Theodicy unknown) ].

o 38 38

x [x x x x x x x x]-⸢u₂⸣-tu₂ : na-ki-su ša₂ na-piš-⸢tu₂ :⸣ -ti-ši-in : it-ti-ši-in : u₂⸣-[x x (x)]

(o 38) [] (= Theodicy unknown) means “cutter, said of a throat.” ištīšin (= Theodicy unknown) means “with them” (ittīšin). [].

o 39 39

[x x x x x x x x x x] ma?⸣-ra-ku : ana a-ra-ku : si-⸢ga⸣-a-tu₂ : ana sa-ge-e : up-tar-ri-ir : pur⸣-[ru-ru : su-up-pu-ḫu] 24

(o 39) [ “Le]ngth” (= Theodicy unknown) stems from “to be long.” Troubles (= Theodicy unknown) stems from “to cause trouble.” “He once and again disperses” (= Theodicy 123) (stems from) “to dis[perse,” (which) means “to scatter”].

o 40 40

[x x x x x x x x x x]-⸢x⸣-tu₂ : ub-bal : ba-ba-⸢lu [:] na⸣-šu₂-u : up-te-eṣ-ṣa-am-ma : pe-e-⸢ṣa [x x (x)]

(o 40) [] “He carries off” (= Theodicy 125) (stems from) “to carry off,” (which) means “to bear.” “He once and again crushes” (= Theodicy 126) (stems from) “to crush” [].

o 41 41

[x x x x x x x x x x x li]-⸢gi⸣-ma-šu₂ : lig-mu-⸢u⸣-[šu₂ : x] x :⸣ ṣe-re-es-su!(ZU) : ṣer-šu₂ : im⸣-[x x (x)] 25

(o 41) [ “His s]prout” (= Theodicy 128) (can be written as) ligmû[šu ] ṣērissu (= Theodicy unknown) means “his back” [].

o 42 42

[x x x x x x x x x x x x] x be?/nu? : ze?-x [x BA :] mu⸣-na-aš₂-ši-ri : BI : mu-x⸣-[x x (x)] 26

(o 42) [] [ (since) ba] means “he who cuts off,” bi means “he who …” []

o 43 43

[x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x] x x x [x x x x x]

(o 43) [] []

Reverse
r 1' r 1'

[x x x x x x x x x x] x [(x)] x [x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x]

(r 1') [] []

r 2' 2'

[x x x x x x x x sar]-⸢ma⸣-ʾu : ni-i-⸢ri [x x x x x x x x x x x x x x] 27

(r 2') [ “Lo]ad” (= Theodicy 184?) means “yoke.” []

r 3' 3'

[x x x x x x x x x x] x : ma-ru-⸢x [x x x x x x x x x x x x x x]

(r 3') [] []

r 4' 4'

[x x x x x x x x x x x]-⸢ri? : x-gap?⸣-šu₂ : x⸣-[x x x x x x x x x x x]

(r 4') [] []

r 5' 5'

[x x x x x x x x x x] x [:] in? qa₂-bal : -tu u₄-⸢mu [: x x x x x x x x x]

(r 5') [] in qabal (= Theodicy 189) means “from the day” [].

r 6' 6'

[x x x] x [x x x x] x : x⸣-ba-tu₂ : GALu₂ : ip⸣-tu₄ : bil-tu₄ : i-⸢ḪAP-x [x x x x x x x x x]

(r 6') [] [] (= Theodicy 192?) means “great.” “Wealth” (= Theodicy unknown) means “tribute.” [].

r 7' 7'

[x] x x : ana x⸣-[x x : qa-a]-⸢a⸣-aš₂ : qa-a-šu₂ : na-da-nu : i-šam ša₂-a-mu : na-⸢da-nu [x x x x x x x x x]

(r 7') [] stems from [ “Pres]enting” (= Theodicy 196) (stems from) “to present,” (which) means “to give.” “He bought” (= Theodicy unknown) (stems from) “to buy,” (which) means “to giv[e” ].

r 8' 8'

[ta]-⸢šim⸣-tu₂ : mil-ki : ka⸣-[-ša₂]-a-tu₂ : ḫa-am-ma-a-tu₂ : UR₄ : a-ša₂-šu₂ : UR₄ : ḫa-ma-mu : ša₂-niš ka⸣-[ša₂-šu₂ x x x x x x]

(r 8') “Counsel” (= Theodicy 199) means “advice.” “You embrace” (kaššāta) (= Theodicy 200) means “you encompass,” (since) ur means “to catch” (ašāšu) (and) ur means “to encompass”; alternatively, “to cont[rol” (k[ašāšu) ]

r 9' 9'

[mu]-⸢du⸣-u : ṭup-šar-ri : mu⸣-du-u : de₂*-a :⸣ uz*⸣-na-ka dIDIM u ddam-ki-an-⸢na [ABGAL ne₂-me-qi₂ x x x x] 28

(r 9') “Sage“ (= Theodicy 201/202) means “scribe”; “wise“ means Ea (as in) “Your ears are Ea and Damkianna, scholar(s) of wisdom [] (= quotation from KAR 102+ o 21′).

r 10' 10'

u₂-sa-an-du-u : ṭup-⸢šar⸣-ri : u₂-bil-lu ⸢: ba-ba⸣-lu : na-da-nu : ka-at-mu : ed?-li? [x x x x x x]

(r 10') “Fowler“ (= Theodicy 202) means “scribe.” “They carry“ (= Theodicy 202) (stems from) “to carry,” (which) means “to give.” “Covered” (= Theodicy 203 or 204) means sh[ut ]

r 11' 11'

ka-ar-ba : ana ka-ra-bi : šal-ba-ba : ne₂-me-qa : ŠAL : ra-pa-šu₂ : BA : e-peš ⸢:⸣ [BA : x x x]

(r 11') “Blessing“ (= Theodicy 204, 205, or 206) stems from “to bless.” “Wise” (šalbābu) (= Theodicy 204, 205, or 206) means “wisdom,” (since) šal means “wide,” ba means “to do,” (and) [ba means ]

r 12' 12'

en-qa : ṭup-šar-ri : mi-ḫi-iṣ-tu₂ mi-ḫi-il-tu₄ : u₂-pat-ta-an-ni : uk-tal?⸣-[la?-man?-ni? x x x x] 29

(r 12') “Wise” (= Theodicy 206) means “scribe.” miḫiṣtu (= Theodicy 206) means “cuneiform wedge“ (miḫiltu). “He reveals to me“ (= Theodicy 206) means “he sh[ows me” ]

r 13' 13'

ka-ṣa-ru : ra-kas : ed-lu-tu₂ : ana e-de-lu : ka-ša₂-me : ki-ša₂-ma : ḫur-pi-⸢i* [: x x x x x x x]

(r 13') “To tie” (= Theodicy 207) means “to bind.” “What is shut” (= Theodicy 207) stems from “to shut.” kāšāme (= Theodicy 208) means “forgive me!” (kīšāma). ḫurp[î means ], ditto means “to go.“ “Powerful” (= Theodicy 211) means “warrior.” “Errant“ (= Theodicy 212) stems from “to err.“

r 14' 14'

MIN : a-lak : a-⸢li⸣-li : qar-ra-du : ri-pi-it-tu₄ : ana ra-pa-du ⸢:⸣ [x x x x x x x x x]

r 15' 15'

ṭa-ra-du ⸢: ra⸣-da-du : rid-di : ṭe₃-e-mu : me-e-šu₂ : e-te-⸢qa [x x x x x x x x x]

(r 15') “To go astray“ (cf. Theodicy 213) means “to chase.” “Behavior“ (= Theodicy 214) means “mind.” “To scorn” means “to pass“ [].

r 16' 16'

x-x-x : bu-⸢x⸣-nu : SAG : re- : SAG : qaq-qa-du : ša₂-niš re-e-šu₂ [x x x x x x kab?-tu₂?] 30

(r 16') (= Theodicy unknown) means sag means “head” (rēš), sag means “skull”; “head” (rēšu) means [ Noble (= Theodicy 216) (?) means] “skilful.” “Wise” (= Theodicy 217) means “scribe.” “He is looked after and obtains his wi[shes” (= Theodicy 218) ].

r 17' 17'

le-ʾu-u : pal⸣-ku-u : ṭup-šar-ri : ri-i-ši na--ši ba-ši ṣa-[bu-u-šu₂ x x x x x x] 31

r 18' 18'

ri-di-ma : re-⸢du⸣-u : a-lak : u₂-su : kib-su : me₂-si : par-ṣi [x x x x x x x]

(r 18') “Follow!” (= Theodicy 219) (stems from) “to follow,” (which) means “to go.” “Usage“ (= Theodicy 219) means “foot track.” “Rite” (= Theodicy 219) means “cultic ordinance.” []

r 19' 19'

ḫar-ḫa-ri : pi-⸢SAR? : ša₂-niš ku-lu-ʾ-u₂ : is-ḫap-pu : sak-lu : kit⸣-[mu-su : x x x] 32

(r 19') “Rogue” (= Theodicy 221) means , alternatively, it means “male prostitute.” “Villain” (= Theodicy 222) means “ignorant.” “Am[assing” (= Theodicy 223) means ], alternatively, it means “scribe.” “To heap” (= Theodicy unknown) means “to gather.” “Beer jar“ (= Theodicy 224) means “beer“, alternatively, it means []

r 20' 20'

ša₂-niš ṭup-šar-ri : qur?-ru-nu? : pu-ḫur : ḫu-bu-ru : ši-kar : ša₂-niš x [x x x x x] 33

r 21' 21'

DU₃ : ma-ga-ri : DU₃ [: x]-⸢x⸣-lu-u : ki⸣-kur-⸢re-e-ti? ⸢: x x [x x x x x x x] 34

(r 21') () (since) means “to agree” and means [] “Temple foundations” (= Theodicy unknown) means [ (since) ki means ], kur means “abode” (and) ru means “to l[ay”.] “Shelter” (= Theodicy 226?) means []

r 22' 22'

KUR : šub-tu₂ : RU : na-[du-u :] ta⸣-bi-ni ⸢: x [x x x x x x x x x x x x x]

r 23' 23'

me₂-re-šu₂ : ne₂-me-⸢qi₂ : MIN : pa⸣-x [x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x]

(r 23') “Intelligence” (= Theodicy unknown) means “wisdom”; the same means []

r 24' 24'

ḫi-ṣib-šu₂ : dum⸣-qi₂-šu₂ : ḫa-šik*-kiš* [x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x] 35

(r 24') “Its produce” (= Theodicy unknown) means “its good.” “Like a deaf man” (= Theodicy 233) [means ]

r 25' 25'

i-la : e-li : miṭ-rat : na⸣-[a-ru x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x] 36

(r 25') ila (= Theodicy 244) (can be written as) eli. “Watercourse” (= Theodicy 245) means “r[iver” ]

r 26' 26'

i-lak-kid : la-ka-du : la-[sa-mu x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x]

(r 26') “He pursues” (= Theodicy 247) (stems from) “to pursue,” (which) means to r[un ]

r 27' 27'

dup-pu-us-su-u : tar-den-nu : x⸣-[x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x] 37

(r 27') “Younger brother” (= Theodicy 248) means “second”; []

r 28' 28'

i-na-ṣa-an-ni : na-a-ṣi ⸢:⸣ [x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x]

(r 28') “They look down on me” (= Theodicy 253) (stems from) “to look down on”; []

r 29' 29'

li-it-mu-um-mu : ana le?⸣-[me-nu : x x x x x x x x x x x x x] lu? x x

(r 29') “Angry” (= Theodicy 255) stems from to be a[ngry ]

r 30' 30'

bu-u₂-ri : ma-ri : šit*⸣-[tin-šu₂ : šu]-lu--⸢tu₂ [u₃ šu-lu]-⸢?-tu₂ :⸣ lil-lu : še-e⸣-[ri :] u₂-te-eq-qa-⸢am⸣-[ma] 38

(r 30') “Calf” (= Theodicy 260) means “child.” “Two [thirds” (= Theodicy 261) means “one t]hird.” [] “Simpleton” (= Theodicy 262) means “wild.” “Wait for me” (= Theodicy 265) (stems from) “to await” ((w)aqû Dt), (which) means “to p[ay attent]ion,” (which) stems from si[lence]; alternatively, “to await” ((w)aqû Dt) means “to stand.”

r 31' 31'

u₂-te-eq-qu-u₂ : qa⸣-[a]-⸢lu : ana qu?⸣-[u₂-lu] ša₂⸣-niš u₂-te-⸢eq-qu⸣-[u₂ :] u₂⸣-zu-uz-zu : an-zil-⸢lu₄ [:] ik⸣-ki-bi

r 32' 32'

pa-šal-la : ḫu-⸢ra⸣-ṣu : ana pa-ša₂-lu [: x x] x : -pik-ku : rug-bi : an-na : la kit-tu₂ : et-⸢nu⸣-šu₂ : en-šu₂ 39

(r 32') pašallu (= Theodicy 271) means “gold”; it stems from “to crawl” [(which) means] “Store house” (= Theodicy 272) means “upper room.” “Sin” (= Theodicy 273) means “unfair.” “Penurious” (= Theodicy 275) means “weak.”

r 33' 33'

dna-ar-ri : den-lil₂ : dsu-⸢lum-mar : dIDIM : ša₂ ša₂-lum-ma-tu₂ na-šu₂-u : SU.LIM : ša₂-lum-ma-tu₄

(r 33') “Narru” (= Theodicy 276) means “Enlil.” “Sulummar” (= Theodicy 277) means “Ea,” (the name means) “he who carries splendor,” (since) SU.LIM (from sulummar) means “splendor” (and) mar (from sulummar) means gar, (which) means “to carry.” šuʾētu (= Theodicy 278) means “lad[y.”] “Twisted” (= Theodicy 279) means “unfair.” “Permanently” (= Theodicy 280) means “constantly.”

r 34' 34'

MAR : GAR : na-šu₂-u : šu-ʾe-e-tu₄ : be-el-⸢tu₄ :⸣ et-gu-ri : la kit-tu₂ : sa-an-⸢tak-ku [:] ka-a-a-nu

r 35' 35'

nu-ul⸣-[la]-⸢ti : la kit-tu₂ : ki-pi₂-id : ṣum-⸢mi⸣-[rat] x x x tu₂ : ba--tu₂ : i-šit-tu₂ : ma-⸢ak-ku-ri [:] šar⸣-ba-ba ⸢: x [x x] 40

(r 35') “Slander” (= Theodicy 284) means “unfair (words).” “Plan” (cf. Theodicy 284) means “des[ires”] pride. “Storeroom” (= Theodicy 285) means “possession.” “Weakness” (= Theodicy 286) means [] “They cause him to collapse” (= Theodicy 286) “to c[ollapse” means “to me]lt”, the same means “to soften.” “Glowing ashes” (= Theodicy 286) means “ashe[s.”]

r 36' 36'

[x x x] na : -ḫa-ram-ma-mu- : na⸣-[ḫar-ma-mu :] na-ḫar⸣-muṭ : MIN : la-ba-ku : la-ʾ-me : ṭi-⸢ik-me-en⸣-[nu] 41

r 37' 37'

[ri-ṣa]-⸢am⸣-ma : ra-a-ṣa : a-lak : ša₂-niš DAḪ : ra⸣-[a-ṣa : DAḪ : a]-⸢ṣa⸣-bu : A₂.DAḪ : ri-ṣa : MIN : a-lik i-⸢di [: ul-lu :] 42

(r 37') [Assis]tance” (= Theodicy 290) (stems from) “to assist”, (which means) “to go.” Alternatively, daḫ means “to as[sist, daḫ means “to en]large”; á.daḫ means “assistance”; the same means “one who goes alongside.” “I raised” (= Theodicy 293) stems from “to be h]igh.” “Like a servant”(= Theodicy 294) means “like a slave.” “Has thrown me away” šub [means “to throw away,” šub means “to] leave.” “To renounce” (= Theodicy 296) means “to cease.” “May he g[ive (me) a long life” (= Theodicy 297?) means ].

r 38' 38'

[ana] e⸣-lu-u : re-ši- : GIM IR₃ : ša₂ id-dan-ni : ŠUB [: na-du-u₂ : ŠUB :] e⸣-zeb : na-par-ku-u : ba-ṭa-lu : li-lab-⸢bi⸣-[ir : x x x] 43


r 39' 39'

[ṣa]-⸢a⸣-tu₂ u šu-ut KA maš-a-a-al-tu₂ lu₂um-man-nu ša₂ a-⸢šiš? [x x x x] x imgid₃-ṭi mdAG-MU-MU A-šu₂ mdEN-⸢KI?⸣-[x x x x]

(r 39') [Le]mmata, oral explanations, and (materials for) a “questioning” by a (master-)scholar, from “O emcompassing [] …” (= Theodicy 1). One-column tablet of Nabû-nādin-šumi (or, Nabû-šuma-iddina), son of Bēl-… [].

1The sign after a-ta is certainly not ḫaz (pace Oshima). The restoration at the end is speculative (a-ta-a[m-mar], amāru Gtn Imperative).

2On tappû = šu-⸢taš⸣-[nu-u₂] (si vera lectio), compare [tap]-⸢pu⸣-u₂ : a-me-lu ša₂-nu-u₂ in BM 38271 l. 16 (CCP 2.3). Lambert’s handwritten note suggests restoring šu-⸢taṣ⸣-[bu-tu₂].

3The word ayyānuš is apparently elsewhere unattested.

4Note that the explanandum, nissatu, is far more common than the explanans, niššatu.

5The sign before ʾ⸣-u ends in a vertical (perhaps [na-ʾ-du :] ⸢le-ʾ⸣-u); the sign after ana begins with a vertical (therefore ra⸣-[a-mu] seems impossible, perhaps a⸣-[ra-mu]).

6The reading pal⸣-[ḫu] is suggested by Lambert in a note in the margin of his copy.

7The equation qâlu = šatāqu does not seem to make sense.

8As noted by Oshima Babylonian Poems of Pious Sufferers (2015) p. 350, the commentary apparently derives šētēku from šêtu, although the two known MSS of the base text read ši-te-ti-iq and ši-ti-qa, making this derivation impossible.

9Compare DIMMA.KUR₂.RA = dubbubu in Nabnītu IV/IVa 100 (MSL 16 p. 100). After šānê ṭēmi, read perhaps DIMMA⸣.[KUR₂.RA]? At the end, both Lambert and Oshima read tu-⸢ša₂?-al?⸣-[lik], but the sign after tu looks rather like maš.

10On the use of the noun qadmu as a common noun for “god,” see Lambert BWL (1960) p. 309. The traces after DINGIR may correspond to the name of one particular god (perhaps dEN⸣.[LIL₂]?).

11The equation samku = sangu simply provides the Late Babylonian pronunciation.

12The line contains a vertical quotation from Malku IV 196-198. On ūmu rēqu, see Rutz ZA 106 (2016) p. 58a. Compare CCP 1.5 l. 20: [... u₂]-⸢sa?-tu₂?⸣ : gi-mi-il. The restoration at the end is very uncertain, inasmuch as ana muḫḫi is used elsewhere in this commentary to introduce etymographical analyses, not simply to establish the lemma.

13On the technical term umma, see Gabbay CHANE 82 (2016) p. 195-198. The passage has been collated [EJ].

14On the reading of the line, see Jiménez Iraq 76 (2014) p. 103.

15Lambert BWL (1960) p. 305 understands gi-na-ta-[ma] as an adjective (from ginû), “you are stable.” a-ba-ma-LU might reflect a corruption of am-ma-tiš₂ in a manuscript, or else a variant amālu (or amāliš): compare in the Ludlul commentary (CCP 1.3) r 18: u₂-pat-tin kin-ne₂-e a-ma-liš iz-qu-up : kin-nu-u KURu₂ : a-ma-lu gišU₃.SUḪ₅, “‘He strengthened it (as) a mountain, he planted (it) erect like a tree’ — Mountain (means) mountain. Tree (means) pine tree.”.

16In Theodicy 60, the first word is written [gi]-⸢mil in the Kuyunjik MS K.9290+, but gi⸣-mir in the “Sippar Collection” MS BM 68589. The same situation is that of Theodicy 57, in which the same word is explained as gi-mil : ana ga-ma-lu in l. 22 of the present commentary, but the “Sippar Collection” MS BM 68589 preserves the writing gi-mir (the vacillation between gimil and gimir is also attested in various manuscripts fo the first line of the Great Šamaš Hymn). In the present line, the explanation clearly states that the verb is gamāru, but the sign after gi is neither MIR nor MAR. mis is a possibility, but its use is difficult to explain. Compare perhaps the phonetic change rt > št > lt in Late Babylonian.

17The first equation of the line (lillu = šēru) appears again in r 30′, as well as in CCP 3.6.4.A r 1 (correct de Zorzi Šumma Izbu (2014) p. 343 and 380 accordingly). ḫarḫaru is explained differently in r 19′.

18Theodicy 83 reads qi₂-bit₂ pi-i dil-ti | ul -šad-[da-ad] || x-meš | ul ḫa-⸢as⸣-[su], “the commands of the goddes are not carried out, her … are not fulfiled.” The word ending in meš (perhaps ṭēmiš(a)?) must be the one whose explanans is ṭēmu.

19At the end, perhaps t[up-šar-ri].

20On šumme, “clause beginning with šumma,” see below the commentary on o 36. The second part of the verse contains a notarikon analysis of some word (e.g. GEe = ištēn, elsewhere well attested).

21It is uncertain how the first part of the line should be interpreted, perhaps tir-ri : ša₂-ništi⸣-[i-ri] instead of še-e-ri? On the last preserved equation, compare ummulu = raʾību in LTBA 2, 2: 270.

22The first word may be šummu, “clause beginning with šumma,” a word that is attested in Theodicy 198 and 214 (see also above the commentary on o 33). The words beginning in am- probably belong to the am- stanza of the Theodicy (§ XI). The reading of the last word is suggested in the margin of Lambert’s copy, if correct, restore perhaps at the end [ana mašāli].

23The line contains probably a notarikon analysis of the word ullītiš, “the day after tomorrow.” Compare ullūtiš = ina[nna], lā matar = MIN in Malku III 87-88. See also ullūtiš = ištēn ūmi in Malku III 165.

24The restoration of the last word is suggested in a note in the margin of Lambert’s copy.

25It is unclear whether UR-mu-u-[šu₂] should be read as lig-mu-u-[šu₂] here (if so, the writing would be otherwise unattested, but the commentary may comment on a manuscript in which the word was actually written lig-mu-u-šu₂). In any case, tešmû makes no sense in this context.

26The line contains a notarikon analysis of an unknown word or syllable. On BA = munašširu, see CAD N/2 60-61.

27The restoration of the first word is suggested in a note in the margin of Lambert’s copy.

28Collated. The line contains a previously identified quotation from KAR 102+ o 21′ (Syncretistic Hymn to Ninurta): GEŠTU-MIN-ka de₂-a ddam-ki-na ABGAL ne₂-me-qi₂ [x x x x], “Your (sc. Ninurta’s) ears are Ea (and) Damkina, scholar(s) of wisdom […].” The quotation is intended to justify the equation between the word “ear“ and the god “Ea,“ and does so by quoting from a text in which the former is said to represent the latter.

29The restoration at the end is Lambert’s.

30The reading of the first two words is uncertain, Lambert’s (BWL pp. 307-308) and Oshima’s (= OLA 14 p. 362) seem equally unlikely.

31If the restoration at the end of the previous line is correct, compare Aa II/3 § E l. 18′: IDIM = lā lēʾû. This line contains the only quotation of a full line from the Theodicy. Commentaries tend to analyze texts in an atomistic fashion, although explanations to entirely lines, rather than to individual words, do occur elsewhere. Unfortunately, due to the lacuna at the end of the line, it is uncertain what the purpose of quoting a complete verse was. Note that, as pointed out by Lambert BWL p. 308, the line appears almost verbatim in a bilingual proverb (K.4347+ ii 62-63 = BWL p. 241). Did the present commentary cite the Sumerian version of the line?

32ḫarḫaru is explained differently in o 30: ḫar-ḫa-ri : gu-⸢za⸣-lu : MIN : še-e-ru₃. The reading and interpretation of the second word remain elusive.

33On the equation of kitmusu with tupšarru, see ummânu mūdû ša (…) kullat tupšarrūti kīma qurunnê ina karšīšu kamsu, “the wise scribe, who has amassed in his head the entire scribal art like a pile“, in Mayer, OrNS 61 (1992) p. 26 § xix. The reading of the second equation is uncertain, but compare o 25: qur-ru-nu : pu-⸢uḫ⸣-[ḫur].

34The first equation is elsewhere unattested. It probably belongs to a notarikon analysis of a word. Oshima’s restitution of kikurrû in Theodicy 226 is highly uncertain.

35Collated. Restore Theodicy 233 as e-te-[me ḫa-šik]-⸢kiš, “I have become deaf” (the same phrase appears in Ludlul I 71).

36It is uncertain what the purpose of the first equation is.

37The last preserved sign is not PA, as read by Lambert, but rather a ka-like sign (it is possible that the next explanandum is kātû, from line 250, but then the difficult zilūliš from line 249 would have been left unexplained).

38The equation šit*⸣-[tin-šu₂ : šu]-lu--⸢tu₂ is not deciphered on Lambert’s copy. The reading [u₃ šu-lu]-⸢?-tu₂ is courtesy of E. Frahm. Compare the famous verse in SB Gilgameš I 48: šit-tin-šu₂ DINGIR-ma šul-lul-ta-šu₂ a-me-lu-tu, “two-thirds of him god but a third of him human.” On the other hand, lillu = šēru appears also in o 30.

39See I₃.DUB = išpikki = rug-bu in Ḫg I 12a (MSL 5 81).

40The entry that could not be deciphered might refer to nērtu (= Theodicy 284). A MS of the base text (BM 34773) reads i-RI-tu₂ instead of i-šit-tu₂ (see CAD I/J 177b and AHw 386a), a mistake that may have originated from a reading of i-šit-tu₂ as i-rit-tu₂.

41Compare LB 852 o 12′ and 14′ (CCP ##): ZAL : na-ḫar-muṭ : la-ba-ku (…) ZAL : na-ḫar-muṭ : ra-šad : na-ḫar-mu-mu.

42On last preserved equation of the line, see Malku IV 126: rīṣu = ālik idi.

43The explanation ŠUB [: na-du-u₂ : ŠUB :] ⸢e⸣-zeb can also be found in o 30. Restore Theodicy 296 as ša₂ ip-par-ka-an-ni, “(my goddess), who had renounced me” (compare Ludlul I 44: ipparku ištarī ibêš aḫītu, “my goddess renounced me and left elsewhere”).

Photos by Enrique Jiménez

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