CCP 3.5.57 - Ālu 57-58

Catalogue information
British Museum
K.36
NinevehNineveh (Kuyunjik)
joins: 
K.36 + K.2917
CDLI: 
P393723
Publication
Copy: 
CT 41 29
Editions: 

Labat, 1933R. Labat, Commentaires assyro-babyloniens sur les présages. Imprimerie-Librairie de l’Université, 1933.: 50-57

Commentary
DivinationTerrestrial omens (Šumma Ālu)

ṣâtu 2b

Base text: 
Ālu 57-58
Tablet information
Babylonian
Fragment (lower portion)
Columns: 
1
Lines: 
obv 21, rev 20
Size: 
4,01 × 3,1 cm
7th cent (Assurbanipal libraries and other Assyrian cities)
Colophon
No name
Bibliography

Frahm, 2011E. Frahm, Babylonian and Assyrian Text Commentaries. Origins of Interpretation. Ugarit-Verlag, 2011.: 40, 44, 50, 66, 87, 193, 199

Freedman, 1998S. M. Freedman, If a City is set on a Height. The Akkadian omen series šumma ālu ina mēlê šakin. Volume 1: Tablets 1-21. The University of Pennsylvania Museum, 1998.: 18

Gabbay, 2016U. Gabbay, The Exegetical Terminology of Akkadian Commentaries. Brill, 2016.: 25 (ii 4′), 26 (17), 64 (3, r 9), 65 (ii 9), 109 (r 14), 113 (17), 25, 65 (ii 3′), 60, 109 (r 1)

Genty, 2010aT. Genty, Les commentaires dans les textes cunéiformes assyro-babyloniens. MA thesis, 2010.
[Catalogue]
: 425-426

George, 2003A. R. George, The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic. Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts. Oxford University Press, 2003.
[On line o 19: lâdu, date palm bending under its burden of fruit]
: 191 ad 219//224

Labat, 1933R. Labat, Commentaires assyro-babyloniens sur les présages. Imprimerie-Librairie de l’Université, 1933.
[Edition]
: 50-57

Lambert, 1960bW. G. Lambert, Babylonian Wisdom Literature. Clarendon Press, 1960.
[ul murruq, = ul īdi]
: 306 ad 78

Landsberger, 1967aB. Landsberger, The Date Palm and its By-products according to the Cuneiform Sources. Selbtverlag, 1967.: 11, 41 fn. 143

Moren[-Freedman], 1978S. M. Moren[-Freedman], The omen series šumma ālu. PhD thesis, 1978.: 44, 189, 203, 205

Record
Freedman, 04/2016 (Transliteration)
Freedman, 04/2016 (Translation)
Freedman, 04/2016 (Annotation)
Jiménez, 04/2016 (ATF Transliteration)
Jiménez, 04/2016 (Revision and notes)
Jiménez, 04/2016 (Introduction)
Jiménez, 08/2016 (Commentary markup)
By Sally M. Freedman |
Cite this edition
Freedman, S.M., “Commentary on Ālu 57-58 (CCP no. 3.5.57),” Cuneiform Commentaries Project (2017), at http://ccp.yale.edu/P393723 (accessed May 30, 2017)
Make a correction or suggestion
Introduction

This tablet contains a commentary on chapters 57 and 58 (according to the tablet’s tally, 45 and [46]) of the series of terrestrial omens Šumma ālu ina mēlê šakin, “If a City is Set on a Height.” These chapters deal mainly with ominous events that occur in a garden or palm grove.

The present tablet is very similar to other ṣâtu commentaries on Šumma Ālu written in Babylonian script and found in Ashurbanipal’s libraries: CCP 3.5.17 (Ālu 17-20), CCP 3.5.30 (Ālu 30-32), CCP 3.5.41 (Ālu 41-44), CCP 3.5.73 (Ālu 72-74), CCP 3.5.94 (on Ālu 94 alt [ṣâtu 2c]), and CCP 3.5.103 (Ālu [...], 103, 104 alt, and [...] [ṣâtu 2c]). All of them are small tablets with no colophon, which contain commentaries on three or more chapters of Šumma Ālu. All of them bear a ṣâtu 2b or 2c rubric. It is conceivable that all these tablets originally stemmed from the same library, and were brought to Nineveh at a later point.1 More information on their provenance may be obtained from the study of the numeration of the chapters of Šumma Ālu reflected in their rubrics, which differs to a large extent from that of the Assyrian copies of Šumma Ālu found in Nineveh.

 

The main concern of the present commentary is to explain obscure logograms, words, writings, and expressions in the base text. Occasionally the logograms are rendered syllabically, and then a further Akkadian interpretation is appended (thus ll. 5′, 8′-9′, and 26′-27′). The tablet contains several paratextual notes referring to its Vorlage: thus, ll. 3′-4′ state that a certain explanation “was not preserved on the tablet, (and) I could not read it” (ina tuppi ul šalim ul alsīš); l. 17′ calls an explanation “unclear” (ul murruq); and l. 31′ contains a ḫepi-gloss, indicating a textual lacuna in its Vorlage. Interestingly, the explanation given in l. 23′ is said to stem from “oral lore” (šūt pî).

The only technical term used in this text is ša, used to introduce paraphrases in ll. 22′ and 36′. In the former line (l. 22′), the hapax legomenon irtānû is explained first as a variant of ištānû (the shift št > rt, and vice versa, is common in Neo-Babylonian); secondly, it is said to mean “he who has breasts,” as an adjective derived from irtu, “breast.”

  • 1. Many of them have low K-numbers (e.g. K.1, K.36, K.103, or K.118), which means that they were found in Rooms 40-41. See J. E. Reade, Ninive (Nineveh), Reallexikon der Assyriologie, vol. 9, pp. 388-433, 1998. P. 422.
Edition

Powered by Oracc
(Base textCommentaryQuotations from other texts)

ccpo

CT 41, pl. 29, K 00036 +

Obverse
x65 obverse
1' 1'

E₂.GI₄.A-šu₂ AL⸣-[x x

x x] x [x x x]

É.GI₄.A ... [...]

2' 2'

GI.BULUG₃.[GA]

tar-bu-[tu₄] 1

GI.BÙLUG.[GA] means “foster child.”


3' 3'

* uz-zi DINGIR mi-i-⸢x x x :

KA.ŠU.I : ina ṭup-pi ul ša₂-lim

“If the wrath of a god ... ... it was not complete on the tablet;

4' 4'

   

ul al-si-

I could not read it.


5' 5'

KIR₄.ZAL

ta-šil-ti ḫi-du-ti

KIR₄.ZAL means “delight,” (i.e.,) “joy.”


6' 6'

BURU₅.MUŠEN

e-ri-bu

BURU₅.MUŠEN means “crow.”


7' 7'

TI.LA ŠA₃ AL!(AN).SI.SI

ba-la-ṭu -te-ni-ib-bi 2

TI.LA ŠÀ AL!(AN).SI.SI means “life will continually be satisfying.”


8' 8'

U₄.ḪUB

taḫ-tu-u₂

U₄ means “defeat.”

9' 9'

taḫ-tu-u₂

dab-du-u₂

“Defeat” means “vanquish.”


10' 10'

ša₂ ŠUB UR₃

ša₂ mi-qit u₂-ri 3

šá ŠUB ÙR means “of the collapse of a roof.”


11' 11'

A.KU₅

bu-tuq-tu₄

A.KU₅ means “flood.”


12' 12'

NIG₂.SIG₅ : da-me-eq-ti

NIG₂.ḪUL : le-mut-tu₄

NÍG.SIG₅ means “good fortune,” NÍG.ḪUL means “evil.”


13' 13'

ṣa-a-tu₄ ša₂ DUB 45.KAM₂ * URU ina SUKUDe GARin

Lemmata from tablet 45 (i.e., 57) of “If a City is Set on a Height.”


14' 14'

ZALAG₂ ri

nu-u₂-ri

ZÁLAG-ri means “light.”

15' 15'

at-ḫu-u₂ i-ṭib-bu

ŠEŠ-MEŠ i-ṭi-ib-bu

at-hu-ú i-ṭib-bu means “brothers will be on good terms.”

16' 16'

GIG.ḪAB.BA

mar-ru

GIG.ḪAB.BA (= Šumma Ālu 58 rel = K.6760 l. 11) means “bitter.”


17' 17'

* KIMIN gišGIŠIMMAR maš-ki ku-nu-u₂

: maš-ki ma-du-ma ul mur-ru-uq

If ditto (in a city grove) the date palm’s ... are ... means maški are many and (...) (this) is not clear


18' 18'

im- ma KA×UD

ṣu-u₂-⸢mu

(The sign) KA×UD, (pronounced) /imma/, means “thirst.”


19' 19'

* KIMIN gišGIŠIMMAR ina GU₂.UN

i-lu-ud

“If ditto a date palm is bent over by produce” (= Šumma Ālu 58 16′, see CT 40 44 = 80-7-19,22 l. 3).

20' 20'

aš₂-ṭa

dan-nu

ašṭu means “strong.”


21' 21'

ir-ta-nu-u₂

-ta-nu-u₂

irtānû (is a variant writing of) ištānû (= “unique”).

22' 22'

    <(ir-ta-nu-u₂)> : ša₂ GABA.MEŠ šak-nu 4

(alternatively, it refers to a person) who has breasts (i.e., irtānû).


reverse
23' 23'

ki-tu₂ u₂-kal-lim

im-bu-u₂ u₂-kal-lam-ma šu-ut pi-i 5

“It shows kitu means “it shows fiber,” (according to) an oral (explanation).


24' 24'

* la-am gišGIŠIMMAR ša-ra-mi

a-di!(KI) la gišGIŠIMMAR un-dar-ru-u₂

“If, before a date palm’s pruning” (= Šumma Ālu 58 22′) means “when they have not (yet) cut the branches of a date palm.”


25' 25'

me-eṭ-ra-tu₄

giš KIRI₆

miṭrātu (lit., “irrigated groves”) means “grove.”


26' 26'

gišPA.KUD GIŠIMMAR

u₂-ru-u₂ e-ru₃ 6

giš.PA.KUD GIŠIMMAR (= Šumma Ālu 58 24′) means “palm frond,” (i.e.,) “frond.”


27' 27'

A₂.DAM

na-maš-šu-u₂ bu-lu₄

Á.DAM means “beasts,” (i.e.,) “herds.”


28' 28'

KI BI ŠUB

KUR BI ŠUBdi

KI BI ŠUB (lit. “that place will be abandoned,” = Šumma Ālu 58 36′) means “that land will be abandoned.”


29' 29'

GAM.GAMud

iq-ta-na-ad-du-ud

GAM.GAM-ud (= Šumma Ālu 58 36′) means “is repeatedly bending.”


30' 30'

ta-ri-tu₄

DUMU.MUNUS up-pi 7

“Offshoot” (sc., of a date palm) (= Šumma Ālu 58 37′) means “daughter of the axil” (sc., of the palm).


31' 31'

I₃.BA

i-zu-<uz> ḫe-pi₂ -šu₂8

Ì.BA (= Šumma Ālu 58 39′) means “it is divi<ded>” (new break)


32' 32'

ni-ziq₂-tu₂

ni-ziq-⸢ti

ni-zíq-tú (= Šumma Ālu 58 42′) (can be spelled as) ni-ziq-ti (lit., “trouble”).


33' 33'

ni-ši-ti₃

maš-ši-ti 9

“Lifting” (nišītu, = Šumma Ālu 58 43′) means “carrying” (maššītu).


34' 34'

ut-tu-ku

ku-up-pu-pi

“Bent” (= Šumma Ālu 58 47′) means “bowed.”


35' 35'

is-suḫ₄

in-na-as-siḫ₂-ma

“It uproots” (= Šumma Ālu 58 53′) means “it is uprooted.”


36' 36'

is-sa-na-pi-du

ša₂ zi-ni-šu₂-nu ina la IM iḫ*⸣-x-⸢x 10

(The leaves of the date palm) “keep mourning” (= Šumma Ālu 58 54′) (refers to date palms) whose fronds [...] without wind.“


37' 37'

ḫuu₂-qa

ḫu--[qa] 11

ḫu-qa (with phonetic complement /u/) means ḫuʾ[qa].


38' 38'

mut-qa

kal-ma-⸢tu₄

“Vermin” (= Šumma Ālu 58 58′, cf. CT 41 16:30, KUR mut-qa DIB) means “louse.”


39' 39'

šu-ta-ḫu-tu₄

a-ḫu-[u₂]

“Paired” (šutāḫûtu, pl.) (stems from) “to pair” (aḫ[û]).


40' 40'

[x (x)] x ka⸣-lu-u₂

GURUN-šu₂ i-kal-la-⸢ma [x x x]

[...] “to hold back” (= Šumma Ālu 58 uncertain) means “it holds back its fruit and [...].


41' 41'

[...]

x⸣-ḫa-ra-[...]

...


42' 42'

[...]

[x (x)] x [...]

...

1Cited in CAD T 225 under tarbûtu, “status of foster child” (or foster child), “uncert.”

1Reading AL with CAD B 46 and Š/2 252.

1Or perhaps šá as technical term.

1CAD I seems to understand line 21 as “irtānû” means “unique” and line 22 as “one who has a (big) chest,” an alternative explanation for irtānû (see p.183 sub irtānû and p. 278 sub ištēn). Alternatively, one could explain ištanû as šanû Gt.

1Perhaps from kitû, “linen”? [EJ]

1According to CAD A/2 311 and 317 and U/W 260a, eru stands for for arû A, “to cut branches.” This, however, seems unlikely.

1Quotation from Ḫg A 29 to Ḫḫ III [EJ].

1CAD Z 76 has other examples of the spelling Ì.BA for izūz.

1CAD N/2 281 s.v. nišitu, 1. installation in office; 2. glance (of a god, usually fav.); 3. “(unkn. mng.)” cites this passage. CAD M/1 389 s.v. maššitu means “delivery, ingredients.”

1The end of the line needs collation. The phrase is usually ša ina lā šāri inazzuzu, see CAD N/2 141a and Landsberger Date Palm (Afo Beih 17), 1967, p. 13 fn. 34 [EJ].

1See CAD Ḫ 244 s.v. hūqu D (mng. unknown) for discussion.

Photos by Enrique Jiménez

Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum