CCP 3.6.1.A.l - Izbu (gurru maḫīru) A

Catalogue information
Vorderasiatisches Museum
VAT 10071
Ass 1114
AššurAššur, N2 (hB4V, eastern corner of Ziqqurrat)
BWL pl. 73

Cavigneaux & Güterbock & Roth & Farber, 1985A. Cavigneaux, Güterbock, H. G. , Roth, M. T. , and Farber, G. , The Series Erim-huš = anantu and An-ta-gál = šaqû. Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1985.: 7, 24, 45

Lambert, 1960bW. G. Lambert, Babylonian Wisdom Literature. Clarendon Press, 1960.: 31, 125

Leichty, 1970E. Leichty, The Omen Series Šumma Izbu. Augustin, 1970.: 211-229

DivinationTeratological omensPrincipal Commentary


Base text: 
Izbu (gurru maḫīru)
Commentary no: 
Tablet information
Complete tablet
obv 9-11
7th cent (Assurbanipal libraries and other Assyrian cities)
(Šumma-balāṭ s. Nabû-aḫa-iddina ?)

Borger, 1967R. Borger, Handbuch der Keilschriftliteratur. Band I. Repertorium der sumerischen und akkadischen Texte. de Gruyter, 1967.
[t73 VAT 10071 und VAT 10756) Schultafeln, cf p356f. Auszüge aus Vokabularen, dem Šumma Izbu-Kommentar und literarischen Texten.]
: 267

Borger, 1975R. Borger, Handbuch der Keilschriftliteratur. Band II. Supplement zu Band I. de Gruyter, 1975.
[t73 VAT 10071 und VAT 10756) Schultafeln, siehe p356f. Auszüge aus Vokabularen und literarischen Texten. VAT 10071 Z. 9-11 Leichty Šumma izbu p211ff]
: 161

Cavigneaux & Güterbock & Roth & Farber, 1985A. Cavigneaux, Güterbock, H. G. , Roth, M. T. , and Farber, G. , The Series Erim-huš = anantu and An-ta-gál = šaqû. Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1985.
[Edition of the Erimḫuš excerpts]
: 7, 24, 45

Civil, 2004M. Civil, The Series Diri = (w)atru. Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 2004.
[Edition of the DIRI excerpt]
: 105

Frahm, 2011E. Frahm, Babylonian and Assyrian Text Commentaries. Origins of Interpretation. Ugarit-Verlag, 2011.: 204, 206, 252, 271

Lambert, 1960bW. G. Lambert, Babylonian Wisdom Literature. Clarendon Press, 1960.
[Edition of the excerpts from Ludlul and the Šamaš hymn]
: 31, 125

Leichty, 1970E. Leichty, The Omen Series Šumma Izbu. Augustin, 1970.
: 211-229

Pedersén, 1986O. Pedersén, Archives and Libraries in the City of Assur. A Survey of the Material from the German Excavations. Almqvist & Wiksell, 1986.
[(1) Ass. 1114; VAT 10071; school tablet; BWL, pp. 356f., pI. 73; cf. MSL 17, pp. 24ff.]
: 31a

Weiershäuser, 2007F. Weiershäuser, Beobachtungen zur Entwicklung des Korpus lexikalischer Texte in Assur, in Studien zu Ritual und Sozialgeschichte im Alten Orient / Studies on Ritual and Society in the Ancient Near East. Tartuer Symposien 1998-2004, T. Kämmerer de Gruyter, 2007, pp. 349-365.: 354 fn. 15

Veldhuis, 05/2017 (ATF Transliteration)
Jiménez, 05/2017 (Translation)
Sáenz, 05/2017 (Annotation)
Sáenz, 05/2017 (Introduction)
By Luis Sáenz |
Cite this edition
Sáenz, L., “Commentary on Izbu (gurru maḫīru) (CCP no. 3.6.1.A.l),” Cuneiform Commentaries Project (2017), at (accessed September 20, 2017)
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This school tablet was found at Assur, in the House N2. As such, it very likely belonged to the archive of Nabû-aḫa-iddina and Šumma-balāṭ.1 It preserves excerpts from 9 different works, separated by rulings. The excerpted works are the following:



1-2: Erim-ḫuš II, ll. 234-237

3-5: Erim-ḫuš III, ll.12-17

6-8: Diri I, ll. 247-249

9-11: ‘Principal Commentary’ on Šumma Izbu (gurru maḫīru), ll. 121-123

12-14: ḪAR-gud I, ll. 12a, 13, 17

Bottom edge

15-16: Maqlû IV, ll. 135-136


17-18: Great Hymn to Šamaš ll. 138-139

19-20: Ludlul bēl nēmeqi I, ll. 82-83

21-22: Enūma eliš I, ll. 22-23

23-24: Erra Epos I, ll. 73-74


Remarkably, the tablet VAT 10756, a school tablet from the same archive, preserves excerpts from the following lines of the same texts cited in the present tablet. Thus, whereas VAT 10071 cites Erimḫuš II 234-237, VAT 10756 quotes Erimḫuš II 238-240. The only text cited in the present tablet and not in VAT 10071 is the ‘Principal Commentary on Šumma Izbu’ (ll. 9-11 of the present tablet).

In fact, the present tablet is the only known school tablet to contain an extract from a commentary. As noted by E. Frahm, “it is likely that the ‘Principal Commentary’ owes its exceptional inclusion in Ass. 1114 to the fact that it could be used as a lexical list in its own right.”2


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(Base textCommentaryQuotations from other texts)


CDLI Literary 002701.n, ex. 011 & 002718.01, ex. 031 [enuma elish 1 (witness); ludlul b?l n?meqi n (witness)]

x77 obverse
excerpt from Erim-ḫuš II 234-237
1 1

bar dag


di-di 1

“bar dag” (= “to pursue”) means tūpu. “di-di” (in Sumerian) ()

2 2

bar dag-dag



“bar dag-dag” (= “to pursue”) means tāpi. “di-di-ba” (in Sumerian) ()

excerpt from Erim-ḫuš III 12-17
3a 3a

ša₃ dib



“šà-dib” (in Sumerian) means “very angry.” “gug” (in Sumerian) ()

3b 3b


“sugag” (in Sumerian) ()

4 4

ša₃ ḫul ŋal₂

lu-mun lib₃-⸢bi

”šà ḫul ĝál” (in Sumerian) means “evil of the heart.”

5a 5a


“gug” means ()

5b 5b


“sugug” means ()

excerpt from Diri I 247-249
6 6



nu-til min-a-bi


(The sign) KU₇.KU₇, (read) kukku, (is called) “double unfinished , (and means) “good.”

7 7


(and means) “sweet.”

8 8


(and means) “honeyed.”

excerpt from Principal Commentary on Šumma Izbu 121-123 [on Šumma Izbu III]
9 9



“Wailing” (= Šumma Izbu III 76) means “depression.”

10 10


ḫa-ra-⸢ṣu 2

Ditto (i.e., “wailing”) means “breaking off.”

11 11



“Groin” (= Šumma Izbu III 79) means “thigh.”

excerpt from ḪAR-gud I 12a, 13, 17
12 12




“idub” (in Sumerian) means “grain storage”, (which) means “loft.”

13 13




“agazi” (in Sumerian) means “loss”, (which) means “compensation.”

14 14




“mu” (in Sumerian) means “vow,” (which) means “oath.”

excerpt from Maqlû IV 135-136
15 15

a-na UDUN a-lik-ti a-šar-rap-ši-⸢na⸣-[ti]

I shall burn them in a flaming stove,

16 16

dGIŠ.BAR qu-mi!(LUM) kaš-ša₂-pi kaš-⸢šap⸣-[ti]

O Gira, burn my sorcerer and [my] witch!

excerpt from Great Hymn to Šamaš 138-139
17 17

dUTU i-maḫ-ḫar-ka a-lak-ti e-⸢te-qu [pu-luḫ-ti]

O Šamaš, the caravan, who travels in fear, addresses you,

18 18

lu₂DAM-GAR₃ al-la-ku lu₂ŠAMAN₂.LA₂ na-⸢aš₂ ki⸣-[i-si]

The relentless merchant and (his) assistant, the purse bearer.

excerpt from Ludlul bēl nēmeqi I 82-83
19 19

URU ki-i a-a-[bi] ne₂-⸢kil⸣-[man-ni]

My own city frowned at me like an enemy,

20 20

tu-ša₂-ma nak-ra-⸢tu₄ na-an-⸢dur⸣-ti [ma-a-ti]

As if it were a foe, [my land] (was) savage.

excerpt from Enūma eliš I 22-23
21 21

e-šu-u ti-amat-ma na!(MI)-ṣir-šu-nu ⸣-[tap-pu]

Their clamour got loud, throwing Tiāmat into a turmoil,

22 22

dal-ḫu-nim-ma ša₂ ta-a₃⸣-wa-⸢tita-ma-te ka-⸢ra⸣-[as-sa]

They jarred the nerves of Tiāmat.

excerpt from Erra and Išum I 73-74
23 23

UN-MEŠ lip-la-ḫu⸣-ma lit-qu-na ḫu-⸢bur-šin

May people be afraid and their noise be diminished!

24 24

MAŠ₂.ANŠE li-ru-ur-ma li⸣-tur a-na ṭi-iṭ-⸢ṭi

May animals tremble and be reduce to clay!

25 25

⸢13/16⸣ 3

13?/16? (day of month).

1This and the following lines should be read as a two-column excerpt in which the right column (without translation) is a continuation of the left column. Thus, BARDAG : tu-pu = Erimḫuš II 237, BARDAG.DAG : ⸢ta-pi = Erimḫuš II 238, DI.DI = Erimḫuš II 239, DI.DI.BA = Erimḫuš II 239.

2The equation of kūru and nissatu in the previous line is well attested elsewhere; however, the equation of the former word with ḫarāṣu, “to break off,” is unattested outside the ‘Principal Commentary’. De Zorzi (La seria teratomantica Šumma Izbu, Padova, 2014 p. 435) suggests that “riguardo a nissatu il verbo ḫarāṣu indichi consunzione, dimagrimento e generale decadimento.” Alternatively, it is tempting to assume that the association may be due to the fact that the logogram for nissatu, ZARAḪ(SAG.PA.LAGAB), could be read “retrographically” as ḫarāṣu.

3The date in school tablets usually consists of month and day, without indication of the year (see Gesche, Schulunterricht in Babylonien, 2001, p. 56). There is a small damaged sign before the three verticals that would well fit a reading U₄.

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